Cover

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Understanding the economics and interaction of hunter-gatherers has been and continues to be a focus of archaeological research. The people in these societies often moved in small groups but maintained relationships with “others” across diverse languages and sociocultural barriers. ...

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1. The Toyah Phase in Texas: An Introduction and Retrospective

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pp. 1-18

The greater central Texas region was home to hunter-gatherers for thousands of years. As such, the region presents an opportunity to study the economies of small groups, how they interacted with neighbors near and far, how they handled risk, the extent of their mobility, and perhaps how and why their cultures changed through time (Collins 2004). ...

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2. The Toyah Phase and the Ethnohistorical Record: A Case for Population Aggregation

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pp. 19-43

The variability archaeologists observe in material culture (artifacts, features, use of space, etc.) has long been associated with “social groups, whose boundaries are [believed] marked by distinctive patterns in the archaeological record” (Stark 1998:1). Distinguishing social boundaries in order to understand identity and interaction, ...

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3. Defining Hunter-Gatherer Sociocultural Identity and Interaction at a Regional Scale: The Toyah/Tejas Social Field

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pp. 44-75

Toyah represents one of the largest and, arguably, least understood Late Prehistoric archaeological records in North America. Centered in the extreme Southern Plains in what is today central and south Texas, Toyah material culture is distributed across approximately 25 percent of the state (174,000 km2) ...

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4. The Role of Exotic Materials in Toyah Assemblages in a Late Prehistoric Economic and Social System

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pp. 76-89

Exotic materials in Toyah assemblages, although relatively uncommon, are reminders that Toyah peoples had alliances and contacts with neighboring peoples. Artifacts and other cultural materials, such as Caddoan pottery, obsidian, and marine shells, offer us unique opportunities to examine this economic and social network. ...

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5. Reconsidering the Role of Bison in the Terminal Late Prehistoric (Toyah) Period in Texas

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pp. 90-110

Since 1974, Dillehay’s influential article detailing bison on archaeological sites on the Southern Plains has shaped views of subsistence in south and central Texas. This has especially been the case in the Toyah phase. The supposed return of large numbers of bison around ad 1300 (650 BP), combined with the appearance of a host of traits including ...

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6. Bone Processing and Subsistence Stress in Late Prehistoric South Texas

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pp. 111-127

On the basis of diet breadth theory, archaeologists often use the intensity of marginal food exploitation to measure the level of subsistence stress experienced by prehistoric peoples. The frequent occurrence of subsistence stress among Toyah phase groups inhabiting the south Texas plains can be investigated using ecological, ethnohistorical, and bioarchaeological evidence. ...

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7. What Is Northern Toyah Phase? The Toyah Phenomenon on the Texas Southern Plains

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pp. 128-151

Bone-tempered pottery, Perdiz arrow points, and bison-processing tools are hallmarks of the Toyah phase in central and south Texas between AD 1300 and 1700. What, then, do the northernmost Toyah-like remains found on the southern Llano Estacado represent? An expansion of Toyah culture tradition northward from their central Texas homeland? ...

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8. Plains-Pueblo Interaction: A View from the “Middle”

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pp. 152-180

Bloom Mound, gutted by vocational archaeologists and pothunters more than sixty years ago, is a tantalizing enigma on the prehistoric landscape of southeastern New Mexico. Despite its apparent diminutive size (only ten rooms were known to local amateurs) and its remote location far out in the grasslands of southeastern New Mexico, ...

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9. Toyah: Reflections on Evolving Perceptions

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pp. 181-204

I appreciate the invitation to comment on this excellent collection focused on the Toyah interval of greater central Texas, a time and cultural phenomenon that encompasses the dynamic transition from prehistory into the written history of that region. Each chapter examines varying aspects of Toyah, and all are thoughtfully researched and presented in logical fashion. ...

Bibliography

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pp. 205-244

List of Contributors

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p. 245

Index

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pp. 247-254

Back Cover

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