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The Targums
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The value and significance of the targums—translations of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, the language of Palestinian Jews for centuries following the Babylonian Exile—lie in their approach to translation: within a typically literal rendering of a text, they incorporate extensive exegetical material, additions, and paraphrases. These alterations reveal important information about Second Temple Judaism, its interpretation of its bible, and its beliefs.

This remarkable survey introduces critical knowledge and insights that have emerged over the past forty years, including targum manuscripts discovered this century and targums known in Aramaic but only recently translated into English. Prolific scholars Flesher and Chilton guide readers in understanding the development of the targums, their relationship to the Hebrew Bible, their dates, their language, their place in the history of Christianity and Judaism, and their theologies and methods of interpretation.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
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  1. Frontmatter
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  1. Title page
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  1. Table of Contents
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  1. Preface
  2. pp. ix-xi
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. xiii-xiv
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  1. List of Abbreviations
  2. pp. xv-xvii
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  1. Section I: Getting Started
  2. p. 1
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  1. 1. Introduction
  2. pp. 3-17
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  1. 2. Defining Targum
  2. pp. 19-37
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  1. 3. The Seven Rules of Targum
  2. pp. 39-54
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  1. 4. Rabbinic Literature
  2. pp. 55-68
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  1. Section II: The Pentateuchal Targums
  2. p. 69
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  1. 5. Pentateuchal Targums
  2. pp. 71-89
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  1. 6. Sources of the Palestinian Targums
  2. pp. 91-107
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  1. 7. Targum Onqelos and the Targums of Israel
  2. pp. 109-129
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  1. 8. The Pentateuchal Targums in Rabbinic Literature
  2. pp. 131-150
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  1. 9. Dating the Targums of Israel
  2. pp. 151-166
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  1. Section III: The Targums of the Prophets and the Writings
  2. p. 167
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  1. 10. Targum Jonathan of the Prophets
  2. pp. 169-198
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  1. 11. Targum Jonathan
  2. pp. 199-228
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  1. 12. Targums to the Writings
  2. pp. 229-264
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  1. Section IV: The Targums in Late-Antique Judaism
  2. p. 265
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  1. 13. Aramaic in Judaism
  2. pp. 267-283
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  1. 14. Targums and Translation in the History of Rabbinic Literature
  2. pp. 285-324
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  1. 15. Targum as Scripture and Hidden Interpretation
  2. pp. 325-338
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  1. 16. Ancient Scripture Translations
  2. pp. 339-381
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  1. Section V: The Targums and Early Christianity
  2. p. 383
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  1. 17. Comparing the Targums and the New Testament
  2. pp. 385-408
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  1. 18. The Aramaic Retroversion of Jesus Sayings
  2. pp. 409-421
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  1. 19. The Fourth Gospel and Targumic Memra
  2. pp. 423-436
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  1. Section VI: Conclusions and Prospects
  2. p. 437
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  1. 20. Genesis 22 in the Targumim and in Early Jewish and Christian Interpretation
  2. pp. 439-473
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  1. 21. Targums in the Rabbinic World and Beyond
  2. pp. 475-493
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  1. Appendix A: The Parallel Expansions of Genesis 28–50
  2. pp. 495-498
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  1. Appendix B: A Guide to Babylonian Pointing
  2. p. 499
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  1. Glossary
  2. pp. 501-509
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  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 511-539
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 541-557
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