The Franco Regime, 1936–1975
Publication Year: 1987
The history of modern Spain is dominated by the figure of Francisco Franco, who presided over one of the longest authoritarian regimes of the twentieth century. Between 1936 and the end of the regime in 1975, Franco’s Spain passed through several distinct phases of political, institutional, and economic development, moving from the original semi-fascist regime of 1936–45 to become the Catholic corporatist “organic democracy” under the monarchy from 1945 to 1957. Distinguished historian Stanley G. Payne offers deep insight into the career of this complex and formidable figure and the enormous changes that shaped Spanish history during his regime.
Published by: University of Wisconsin Press
The Franco regime was one of the longest-lived of right-authoritarian systems and during its later years one of the most extensively studied. Biographies of Franco.himself are relatively numerous, . . .
Part I: Origins
1. The Politics of Modern Spain
Commentary on modern Spain has largely revolved around concepts of difference, and in fact it was the idea of difference that was eventually converted into a positive slogan by the Spanish . . .
2. An Authoritarian Alternative: The Primo de Rivera Dictatorship
Few heads of government have come to power in twentieth-century Europe with a less explicit political theory than Miguel Primo de Rivera. His assumption of power was predicated on a ninety-day . . .
3. The Second Republic
The political history of the Second Spanish Republic is one of the most controversial and mythified in twentieth-century Europe. The Republic began peacefully with relatively broad acceptance, though . . .
4. The Nationalist Opposition
The principal opposition to Republican reformism and the possibility of revolution took the form of conservative political Catholicism, the CEDA. Though the CEDA was not merely a conservative . . .
5. Franco and the Military
The decisive victory of the left in the parliamentary elections of 1936, followed by the decline in public order and the incipient collapse of parliamentary and constitutional government, provoked widespread . . .
Part II: The Civil War, 1936–1939
6. The Rebellion of the Eighteenth of July
The Spanish crisis of the spring and summer of 1936 was in key respects the Spanish variant of the revolutionary or protorevolutionary crises that afflicted various eastern and central European . . .
7. Establishment of the Franco Dictatorship
Mola and the other leading conspirators had always been eager for Franco to play a major role in the revolt against the Popular Front, but there had never been discussion of anyone other than . . .
8. The Nationalist War Effort
The initial odds in the Civil War scarcely favored the Nationalists. Not only had Mola's plan for a quick seizure of the capital been foiled, but the Popular Front dominated most of . . .
9. Francos Wartime Government
Radicalization of the Civil War into an intense revolutionary-counterrevolutionary struggle demanded a firm political structure and definition for the nascent Nationalist regime. How to accomplish . . .
10. Civil War as Crusade
Religious concern played no overt role in the rebellion of the eighteenth ofJuly that began the Civil War. Mola's original sketch for the new Nationalist system planned to retain not merely a . . .
11. The Repression
Revolutionary civil wars of the twentieth century have generally been marked by a high degree of political violence against civilians. It has been observed that civil wars tend to be much more conflicts . . .
Part III: The Dictadura, 1939–1959
12. Semi-Fascism: The New State of 1939
Franco's complete victory in 1939 gave him greater power than any previous ruler of Spain. No king of medieval or early modem times held the overriding authority for central control and administrative . . .
13. The "German Phase," 1940–1942
Hitler's startling conquest of France in the spring of 1940 drastically altered the foreign policy of the Spanish regime. Its orientation had always been pro-German, but the terms on which the war . . .
14. From Nonbelligerance to Neutrality, 1942–1945
As the war drew nearer to Spain in 1942-43, Franco's policy varied only slightly. He still expected and indeed hoped for an eventual German victory, while maintaining the . . .
15. Ostracism and Realignment, 1945–1950
During most of World War II Franco had maintained closer relations with Germany and Italy than with the Allies, not only because he favored the Axis and thought they would win but also because . . .
16. Social and Economic Policy in the 1940s
The policy of economic autarchy and import substitution adopted in 1939 remained in effect, with varying degrees of modification, for the next two decades. As discussed earlier, autarchy suited . . .
17. Complacent Dictator
By the close of 1950 Franco enjoyed the satisfaction of having achieved the security of his regime primarily on his own terms. Certain changes had been made in deference to international . . .
18. The Regime at Mid-Passage, 1950–1959
By 1950 the regime had taken mature form. Despite the tenseness of its relations with hard-core monarchists, the system that Franco had developed was much more like the blueprint laid down . . .
Part IV: Developmentalism and Decay, 1959–1975
19. The Desarrollo
The last twenty-five years of the Franco regime, from 1950 to 1975, were the time of the greatest sustained economic development and general improvement in living standards in all . . .
20. Continuity and Reform during the 1960s
The plateau achieved by the regime during the 1950s extended through its third decade, well into the 1960s. It had developed a system of essentially bureaucratic, politically almost . . .
21. Twilight of the Regime, 1969–1973
The ceremony of July 1969 finally solved the immediate question "After Franco, who?" It did not necessarily answer the accompanying query "After Franco, what?" The general . . .
22. The Death of Franco
The assassination interrupted the continuity planned by Franco, as was its intention. A new prime minister would have to be found, yet there was no one who could take the place of . . .
23. The Franco Regime in Perspective
The definition and classification of the regime obviously presented an increasingly complex problem the longer that Franco's system endured. This was due in part to its very length, spanning the fascist and . . .
Page Count: 677
Publication Year: 1987
Edition: 1st paperback
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