Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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Illustrations

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pp. ix-x

Maps

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pp. xi-xi

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xiv

The Franco regime was one of the longest-lived of right-authoritarian systems and during its later years one of the most extensively studied. Biographies of Franco.himself are relatively numerous, . . .

Chronology

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pp. xv-xix

Part I: Origins

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1. The Politics of Modern Spain

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pp. 3-18

Commentary on modern Spain has largely revolved around concepts of difference, and in fact it was the idea of difference that was eventually converted into a positive slogan by the Spanish . . .

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2. An Authoritarian Alternative: The Primo de Rivera Dictatorship

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pp. 19-33

Few heads of government have come to power in twentieth-century Europe with a less explicit political theory than Miguel Primo de Rivera. His assumption of power was predicated on a ninety-day . . .

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3. The Second Republic

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pp. 34-45

The political history of the Second Spanish Republic is one of the most controversial and mythified in twentieth-century Europe. The Republic began peacefully with relatively broad acceptance, though . . .

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4. The Nationalist Opposition

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pp. 46-66

The principal opposition to Republican reformism and the possibility of revolution took the form of conservative political Catholicism, the CEDA. Though the CEDA was not merely a conservative . . .

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5. Franco and the Military

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pp. 67-84

The decisive victory of the left in the parliamentary elections of 1936, followed by the decline in public order and the incipient collapse of parliamentary and constitutional government, provoked widespread . . .

Part II: The Civil War, 1936–1939

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6. The Rebellion of the Eighteenth of July

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pp. 87-106

The Spanish crisis of the spring and summer of 1936 was in key respects the Spanish variant of the revolutionary or protorevolutionary crises that afflicted various eastern and central European . . .

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7. Establishment of the Franco Dictatorship

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pp. 107-119

Mola and the other leading conspirators had always been eager for Franco to play a major role in the revolt against the Popular Front, but there had never been discussion of anyone other than . . .

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8. The Nationalist War Effort

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pp. 120-162

The initial odds in the Civil War scarcely favored the Nationalists. Not only had Mola's plan for a quick seizure of the capital been foiled, but the Popular Front dominated most of . . .

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9. Francos Wartime Government

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pp. 163-196

Radicalization of the Civil War into an intense revolutionary-counterrevolutionary struggle demanded a firm political structure and definition for the nascent Nationalist regime. How to accomplish . . .

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10. Civil War as Crusade

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pp. 197-208

Religious concern played no overt role in the rebellion of the eighteenth ofJuly that began the Civil War. Mola's original sketch for the new Nationalist system planned to retain not merely a . . .

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11. The Repression

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pp. 209-228

Revolutionary civil wars of the twentieth century have generally been marked by a high degree of political violence against civilians. It has been observed that civil wars tend to be much more conflicts . . .

Part III: The Dictadura, 1939–1959

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12. Semi-Fascism: The New State of 1939

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pp. 231-265

Franco's complete victory in 1939 gave him greater power than any previous ruler of Spain. No king of medieval or early modem times held the overriding authority for central control and administrative . . .

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13. The "German Phase," 1940–1942

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pp. 266-312

Hitler's startling conquest of France in the spring of 1940 drastically altered the foreign policy of the Spanish regime. Its orientation had always been pro-German, but the terms on which the war . . .

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14. From Nonbelligerance to Neutrality, 1942–1945

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pp. 313-342

As the war drew nearer to Spain in 1942-43, Franco's policy varied only slightly. He still expected and indeed hoped for an eventual German victory, while maintaining the . . .

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15. Ostracism and Realignment, 1945–1950

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pp. 343-383

During most of World War II Franco had maintained closer relations with Germany and Italy than with the Allies, not only because he favored the Axis and thought they would win but also because . . .

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16. Social and Economic Policy in the 1940s

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pp. 384-396

The policy of economic autarchy and import substitution adopted in 1939 remained in effect, with varying degrees of modification, for the next two decades. As discussed earlier, autarchy suited . . .

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17. Complacent Dictator

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pp. 397-412

By the close of 1950 Franco enjoyed the satisfaction of having achieved the security of his regime primarily on his own terms. Certain changes had been made in deference to international . . .

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18. The Regime at Mid-Passage, 1950–1959

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pp. 413-459

By 1950 the regime had taken mature form. Despite the tenseness of its relations with hard-core monarchists, the system that Franco had developed was much more like the blueprint laid down . . .

Part IV: Developmentalism and Decay, 1959–1975

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19. The Desarrollo

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pp. 463-493

The last twenty-five years of the Franco regime, from 1950 to 1975, were the time of the greatest sustained economic development and general improvement in living standards in all . . .

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20. Continuity and Reform during the 1960s

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pp. 494-542

The plateau achieved by the regime during the 1950s extended through its third decade, well into the 1960s. It had developed a system of essentially bureaucratic, politically almost . . .

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21. Twilight of the Regime, 1969–1973

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pp. 543-590

The ceremony of July 1969 finally solved the immediate question "After Franco, who?" It did not necessarily answer the accompanying query "After Franco, what?" The general . . .

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22. The Death of Franco

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pp. 591-622

The assassination interrupted the continuity planned by Franco, as was its intention. A new prime minister would have to be found, yet there was no one who could take the place of . . .

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23. The Franco Regime in Perspective

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pp. 622-641

The definition and classification of the regime obviously presented an increasingly complex problem the longer that Franco's system endured. This was due in part to its very length, spanning the fascist and . . .

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 645-654

Index

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pp. 655-677