Cover

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Throughout the 1990s, amid the swirling discourse regarding affirmative action, I was a regular audience member at the guest-lecturer-of-the-month talk on the . . .

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Introduction

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pp. 1-7

At the seventy-fifth annual convention of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Judge Damon Keith of the Sixth Circuit Court . . .

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I: Race, Labor, and Civil Rights

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pp. 8-33

Title 7’s journey toward becoming law, and its maturation through the courts during the latter stages of the civil rights movement, was an important development in . . .

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II: The Only Thing You Had Was The Labor : A Sharecropper’s Journey through Rural North Carolina

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pp. 34-59

Title 7’s journey toward becoming law, and its maturation through the courts during the latter stages of the civil rights movement, was an important development in . . .

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III: So We Just Started Pushing: Civil Rights in North Carolina

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pp. 60-90

Civil rights activism in North Carolina serves as a microcosm of national civil rights struggles. As opposition to state-mandated segregation swelled, African Americans, . . .

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IV: Phase Two; Namely, Economic Freedom: The Title 7 Campaign

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pp. 91-115

In his history of the NAACP’s Legal Defense and Educational Fund, former LDF director counsel Jack Greenberg writes, “Before lawyers can win cases there have . . .

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V: Subtleties of Conduct . . . Play No Small Part: Griggs at the District Court

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pp. 116-143

As late as 1968, when Griggs began its legal journey at the Greensboro district court, the occupational status of African Americans in southern industry had not improved . . .

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VI: Faithful to Congressional Intent : Griggs on Appeal

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pp. 144-175

By the time the Judge Gordon had handed down his opinion, Robert Jumper, Jesse Martin, and Herman Martin, all high school graduates, had been promoted. Boyd, . . .

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VII: This Thing Isn’t All That Real

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pp. 176-190

The Legal Defense Fund won the case it needed to transform Title 7 into a potent tool for breaking down white employment supremacy. In subsequent decades, . . .

Notes

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pp. 191-214

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 215-227

Index

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pp. 229-234