Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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INTRODUCTION

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pp. 1-11

As Cecil V. Crabb Jr. points out in his book The Doctrines of American Foreign Policy, the doctrines that have guided U.S. foreign policy are not static. Rather, despite recurring themes, such as anti-communism, they are pragmatically adjusted on a “need” basis. That is to say that they evolve, adapting to circumstances as the international environment and changing perceptions...

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1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF U.S. DIRECT MILITARY INTERVENTION

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pp. 12-28

Military intervention has long been a prominent feature of U.S. foreign policy. It may be recalled that one of the first acts of the Second Continental Congress was to authorize an invasion of Quebec in order to foment an uprising there and perhaps gain an ally—a “fourteenth colony”—in the rebellion against the British crown....

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2. PRECONDITIONS FAVORING THE SUCCESS OF MILITARY INTERVENTION IN THE POST–COLD WAR ERA: A Typology

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pp. 29-40

It is difficult to believe that there necessarily exists any “science of war” that yields rules which, when followed, automatically guarantee victory. However, when experience with intervention is carefully examined, certain regularities begin to emerge. The record of interventions carried out in recent history demonstrates that when certain preconditions are present,...

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3. OPERATION JUST CAUSE: The Invasion of Panama

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pp. 41-68

At 1:00 a.m. on December 20, 1989, six U.S. military task forces went into action in Panama, seizing control of the country within hours. This invasion of Panama was the culmination of nearly three years of decay in the relations between the two states, nations that traditionally enjoyed a close,...

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4. OPERATION DESERT STORM: Iraq and the Liberation of Kuwait

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pp. 69-104

For most of the decade following the proclamation of the Carter Doctrine in 1980, it was taken for granted that any threat to the Middle East that would trigger an American military response would most certainly come from the Soviet Union. During the 1980s, however, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism...

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5. OPERATION RESTORE HOPE: Humanitarian Relief in Somalia

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pp. 105-140

The overwhelming victory of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War generated a sense of optimism among American leaders, as well as among leaders of other countries. The United Nations finally appeared to be fulfilling its purpose of creating a better, more secure world. In Iraq, UN-sponsored intervention...

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6. OPERATION ALLIED FORCE: The Air War in Kosovo

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p. 141

Hopes were high that the 1995 Dayton Accords, which ended the Bosnia conflict, would prove to be the basis for a stable, if tense, peace in the Balkans. With the help of the United States and NATO, three years of bloody conflict had been brought to an end. The Serbs, Croats, and Muslims of the...

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7. EVALUATING THE INTERVENTIONIST TYPOLOGY

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pp. 209-235

During the course of the preceding six chapters, this work has touched upon issues that cross the breadth of the discipline. Although the chief focus has been within the field of international relations, this study also contains elements of comparative government (for example, civilian-military relations,...

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EPILOGUE: The “Somalia Syndrome” and the War on Terror

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pp. 236-247

The termination of Operation Restore Hope in 1994 marked the last major commitment of ground forces into direct combat in the 1990s. While military force was employed on several occasions, it was done on a substantially smaller scale than the operations covered earlier....

Bibliography

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pp. 249-254

Index

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pp. 255-266