Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

CONTENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

read more

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. ix

LIKE ANY AUTHOR, I am indebted to many individuals who either directly or indirectly offered assistance at various points in the development of this project. Archivists and librarians across the American South and beyond have made my sojourns at their institutions both productive and enjoyable. Where would we historians be without them? ...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-14

MOST HISTORICAL ASSESSMENTS of America’s civil rights struggle focus on either the fight by the African American community or the leaders who directed the political coalition that championed black legal and political equality. Many approach the civil rights movement from the top down by studying figures such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Lyndon Johnson, both considered ...

read more

1. Opening Pandora’s Box

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 15-55

ON 13 APRIL 1937, African American defendants “Bootjack” McDaniels and Roosevelt Townes entered a not guilty plea for the murder of white grocer, George Windham. Following the arraignment of the two detainees at the Winona County, Mississippi, courthouse that afternoon, a mob abducted them in plain view of their police escort and drove them to the nearby town ...

read more

2. The Origins of Strategic Delay

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 56-96

IN SEPTEMBER 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Poland and World War II began. At first, the United States remained neutral, but following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, it entered the conflagration against the Axis powers. Washington statesmen met the crisis by orchestrating an enormous mobilization that pulled the country out of the economic ...

read more

3. The Battle Broadens

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 97-137

AT THE END OF 1946, President Harry S. Truman established a civil rights commission in an effort to renew the then expired FEPC and, as he explained, “to get the facts and to publicize as widely as possible the need for legislation” aimed at ameliorating the plight of black Americans. After investigating the problem, the commission released its findings under the title ...

read more

4. Division in the Ranks

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 138-190

THE SUPREME COURT DECISION IN THE 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas et al. case offered a powerful judicial challenge to the segregation statutes sanctioned by the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling. “Separate but equal” schools as existed under the Jim Crow system, the court held, were “inherently unequal” and in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment, which ...

read more

5. Victory through Compromise

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 191-232

ON 9 SEPTEMBER 1957, President Dwight Eisenhower signed House Resolution 6127 into law, an event marking the enactment of the first civil rights bill since Reconstruction. This noteworthy occurrence received limited media attention because, the previous week, Arkansas governor Orval Faubus ...

read more

6. This Is Where the Battle Will Be Won or Lost

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 233-280

ON 4 MAY 1961, members of the Congress of Racial Equality headed south from Washington to test southern compliance with the Supreme Court’s 1960 Boynton v. Virginia decision, which banned segregation on interstate bus lines and in interstate terminals. As the delegation moved through Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, they encountered only limited opposition. ...

read more

7. Inevitable Defeat

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 281-305

RICHARD RUSSELL'S HEALTH had steadily declined after he developed emphysema-like symptoms in 1958. Although he quit smoking after experiencing difficulty breathing, his respiratory system progressively worsened. On 2 February 1965, less than a year after the climactic civil rights fight, the sixty-eight-year-old southern leader suffered a severe case of pulmonary ...

read more

Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 306-315

WITH LEGAL AND political equality procured, at least in theory, with the landmark legislation of 1964 and 1965, the civil rights movement splintered as the focus of the crusade shifted northward to the economic injustices that impeded the advancement of the nation’s black community. When the protest effort expanded, it fractured over its objectives and divided over the ...

NOTE ON SOURCES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 317-320

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 321-332

INDEX

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 333-340