Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Preface

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pp. ix-xix

The destructive forces of the Civil War were nowhere more so than in the border communities. Divisions over secession rent their social fabric. Worse, towns strategically positioned suffered the wrath of competing armies in fluctuating occupations, and the resulting destruction. Few...

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1. The Brewing Storm

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pp. 1-42

Life in Winchester on the morning of October 16, 1859, was like any other day. Citizens, merchants, and farmers went about their business as usual. Yet events some thirty miles to the northeast later that day would radically change their lives. John Brown’s raid on the armory at Harper’s Ferry...

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2. The Taste of Humiliation

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pp. 43-90

The cold winds of March 1862 were nothing in Winchester compared to the chill of a prospective evacuation by Jackson. News on February 27 that Union troops occupied Charles Town, some twenty-four miles to the northeast, struck fear. Rumors of a pending threat had circulated for several...

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3. Redemption, Destruction, and Occupation

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pp. 91-134

On Saturday, May 24, 1862, fleeing Union soldiers shattered Winchester’s morning calm. The turmoil sent Unionist hopes plummeting into despair. A despondent Julia Chase observed that “the Secessionists are in their glory that Jackson’s Army is coming back.” Sensing the hopeless...

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4. The Brute: General Robert Milroy

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pp. 135-168

Once again the residents of Winchester watched as Federal troops marched down their streets. Anxious Southerners waited for the new commander, Gen. Robert Milroy. His reputation for harshness preceded him. As it had been for previous Union commanders in Winchester, one of...

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5. The Chess Game

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pp. 169-205

The withdrawal of Lee’s army ushered in another period of instability for Winchester. Military operations shifted to the east along the Rapidan- Rappahannock line. No major operations were undertaken in the Shenandoah until the onset of the 1864 campaign season. Instead, frequent cavalry...

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6. "Whirling through Winchester"

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pp. 207-249

In Sheridan “Old Jube” would face a worthy opponent. Hunter’s return to Maryland offered little effective counterweight to Southern incursions, much less the possibility of a Federal push up the Shenandoah Valley. Early’s presence threatened western Maryland and southern Pennsylvania...

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Epilogue

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pp. 251-266

Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, followed by Johnston’s in North Carolina, effectively ended the Civil War. Parades joyously celebrated the victory. Even many Southerners welcomed the restoration of peace, although they resented Unionist jubilation. Yet perplexing problems remained. The...

Image Plates

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Selected Biographical Sketches

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pp. 267-269

Notes

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pp. 271-332

Bibliography

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pp. 333-361

Index

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pp. 363-380