Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xi

In the great academic paradise in the sky, all scholarly works are completed in less than a week and are so flawless that their authors have no need for . . .

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

In the pages of Walden, Henry David Thoreau describes a ferocious battle waged on the shores of Walden Pond in Concord, . . .

Part I Writing the Civil War

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1 Writing a Battle: Three Versions of Chickamauga

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pp. 15-22

On September 19, 1863—two years, five months, and one week into the slog of the Civil War—the Army of the . . .

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2 The Civil War in Popular Poetry: "God and Right"

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pp. 23-31

To the ears of modern readers, the high-toned lines written by men and women who were moved by the spectacle of a war . . .

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3 Sir Walter Scott's Legacy and the Romance of the Civil War

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pp. 32-40

In order fully to understand the literary proclivities of the war generation, it is necessary to understand the impact of the writings of . . .

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4 Herman Melville: "Battle No More Shall Be"

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pp. 41-60

Despite tremendous resistance from readers, editors, and critics, some authors did stray from the accepted conventions . . .

5 John William De Forest: "The Whole Truth about War and Battle"

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pp. 61-79

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6 Walt Whitman: "That Hell Unpent"

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pp. 80-99

Neither a distant onlooker, like Melville, nor an officer in the trenches, like John William De Forest, Walt Whitman . . .

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7 The Civil War Rewritten in the Postwar Decades

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pp. 100-110

A near uniform reluctance to challenge the idealized representation of the Civil War shaped American literature published . . .

Part 2 The Changing Ways of Fighting and Writing War

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8 The Rapid Modernization of Weaponry and Warfare

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pp. 113-123

Each new generation of American soldiers has marched to war shouldering a new generation of firearms, and it is impossible . . .

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9 Nathaniel Hawthorne, the Monitor, and the Morality of War

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pp. 124-135

Before the Civil War staggered to its conclusion, the prominent New England novelist and short story writer Nathaniel Hawthorne . . .

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10 War as Experienced and Imagined by Mark Twain

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pp. 136-146

One extremely prominent American writer alert to the changing ways of war in the late nineteenth century was the . . .

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11 The War Novels of Stephen Crane, Joseph Kirkland, and Frank Stockton

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pp. 147-154

By the 1890s America had moved solidly into the industrial age. Andrew Carnegie had modernized the steel industry.

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12 American Writers at War: Cuba and the Philippines

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pp. 155-169

Arriving at the very close of the nineteenth century, the Spanish- American War and the Philippine-American War put to the . . .

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13 The Pacifist Ideology of William James and George Kirkpatrick

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pp. 170-178

As the twentieth century loomed, Americans were still struggling to interpret the implications of modern, machine . . .

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Conclusion

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pp. 179-187

In the nearly fifty years that separated the Civil War from World War I, American antiwar writing gradually gained in popularity and . . .

Notes

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pp. 189-212

Works Cited

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pp. 213-222

Index

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pp. 223-233