Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Table of Contents

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pp. 6-6

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Preface

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pp. 7-8

Between 1974 and 1977 I wrote and published my first essays on Franciscans and the economy, but this matter seemed eccentric to many. In 1980, four years after its completion, my edition of the treatise on contracts of the Franciscan, Peter John Olivi, was printed, and it was considered to be a strange thing or, in other...

Abbreviations

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pp. 9-10

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1. A Time of Development and Organization

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pp. 11-54

From 1000 to 1200, Western Europe grew in many ways. The inhabitants of cities and countryside multiplied, more land was cultivated, the income of landowners grew and the amount of goods in circulation increased. At the same time, there were more centers of power, courts, estate holders, landowners, city assemblies, unions of archbishops and monks. Conflicts, quarrels, and...

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2. Francis and the Franciscans: The Discovery of the Elsewhere

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pp. 55-104

Francis, son of the cloth merchant Peter of Bernardone, was born and lived in Assisi, a small and powerless city. In the period between Francis’s birth in 1182 and 1206, when according to the biographies he abandoned his secular life, his city was overwhelmed by political tensions and shifted from a faithful alliance with the...

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3. The Use of the World: From Narbonne to Genoa

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pp. 105-150

While Olivi is writing, and while Franciscans are studying the difference between necessary and superfluous in order to defend their poverty, popes and merchants are coming into closer and closer contact. During the 1200s, the same popes who carefully make laws regarding evangelical poverty, Honorius III , Innocent IV, and Nicholas...

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4. The Market as a Form of Society: From Barcelona to Siena

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pp. 151-196

The market society Franciscans supported could not be peaceful, as the poor in Christ, perhaps, would have liked. Those who went to the marketplace to buy, to sell or to look for money to borrow did not find a homogeneous reality. In Barcelona, as in Siena or in Bologna, between 1350 and 1450, the market is made up...

Index

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pp. 197-209

Back Cover

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