Neither Monk nor Layman
Clerical Marriage in Modern Japanese Buddhism
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: University of Hawai'i Press
Figures and Table
While gathering materials in 1989 for a study of Zen Buddhism during the Edo period, I came across a surprising passage in an 1899 compilation of current S
Preface to the Papeback Edition
In the years since the publication of the hardcover edition of Neither Monk nor Layman, my research has continued to focus on developments in Japanese Buddhism from the beginning of the Meiji period until the present. Although my current work is not directly connected with the debate over clerical marriage, as I have read through the writings of various twentieth-century Japanese Buddhists...
Given the length of time it has taken me to complete this project and my gregarious personality, it is only natural that I have many people to acknowledge. All of them helped make this a far better book than it would have been otherwise. I am deeply grateful to my mentors at Yale University. In particular, I thank Professor Stanley Weinstein for his teaching and friendship. He demonstrated a standard of scholarly thoroughness and accuracy...
Ministries and Other Government Institutions
Chapter 1 Introduction
More than a century after the decriminalization of nikujiki saitai, marriage by Buddhist clerics is now a familiar part of Japanese life. According to a rough estimate made by Kanaoka Sh
Chapter 2 Pre-Meiji Precedents
By the start of the Meiji period, both critics of Buddhism and many Buddhist clerics themselves generally acknowledged that a significant number of clerics ignored the rules governing clerical behavior. In particular, late Tokugawa and early Meiji authors alleged that the regulations banning sexual relations, meat eating, and alcohol consumption by the Buddhist clergy were frequently and flagrantly being violated...
Chapter 3 Jodo Shin Buddhism and the Edo Period Debate over Nikujiki Saitai
Against the backdrop of the systematization of the status system, the increased control of clerical behavior by the Tokugawa and domainal authorities, the sporadic but prominent enforcement of antifornication statutes, and the increasingly vocal contention over meat eating, a sustained debate...
Chapter 4 The Household Registration System and the Buddhist Clergy
From the last decades of the Edo period through the early years of the Meiji era, the Buddhist clergy were confronted with the most violent assault on Buddhist institutions in Japanese history. Over the course of the Bakumatsu era, Buddhism was increasingly attacked from a variety of perspectives by Confucians, Shint
Chapter 5 Passage of the Nikujiki Saitai Law: The Clergy and the Formation of Meiji Buddhist Policy
The 1872 decriminalization of clerical meat eating, marriage, and several other associated practices was an integral part of the social reforms that ended most special legal treatment for the Buddhist clergy. As discussed in the previous chapter, the various measures enacted by the Meiji regime, although resisted by many members of the Buddhist clergy, did find some support even among Buddhist reformers...
Chapter 6 Horses with Horns: The Attack on Nikujiki Saitai
The new laws relaxing regulations regarding clerical deportment as well as the announcement that meat would be eaten at the court were met with considerable resistance from different factions of the clergy. One early violent incident occurred a little more than one month after the court announced that meat would be part of the imperial menu. On Meiji 5/2/ 18 (March 26, 1872), a group of ten members of the Onatake confraternity...
Chapter 7 Denominational Resistance and the Modification of Government Policy
The ferocious protest that arose following the promulgation of the nikujiki saitai law caught the officials in the Ministry of Doctrine by surprise. In spite of much serious resistance from leading Buddhist clerics, however, ministry officials refused to rescind the new order. During the next six years, Buddhist leaders tested the government’s resolve to stay the course and tried to maintain control of the clergy in the absence of government intervention on their behalf...
Chapter 8 Tanaka Chigaku and the Buddhist Clerical Marriage: Toward a Positive Appraisal of Family Life
Although the first wave of responses to the decriminalization of nikujiki saitai were overwhelmingly negative, by the 1880s some Buddhist intellectuals began openly to criticize the position taken by the leaders of the Buddhist denominations. One of the earliest, most radical responses to the problem of clerical marriage was propounded by Tanaka Chigaku (1861–1939)...
Chapter 9 The Aftermath: From Doctrinal Concern to Practical Problem
Almost a generation had elapsed since the decriminalization of clerical marriage, when the editors of the S
Chapter 10 Almost Home
The struggle over nikujiki saitai, which continues to this day, was prolonged and exacerbated by several important trends in the history of modern Japanese religious institutions. As part of the government’s effort to modernize social life, Meiji officials abolished government enforcement of such status-based legal strictures as the prohibitions against meat eating, marriage, or abandonment of the tonsure by ordained Buddhist clerics. In effect...
Publication Year: 2011
OCLC Number: 794925356
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Neither Monk nor Layman