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Social Enterprise

A Global Comparison

Janelle A. Kerlin

Publication Year: 2009

Social enterprise--the use of market-based, civil society approaches to address social issues--has been a growing phenomenon for over twenty years. Gathering essays by researchers and practitioners from around the globe, this volume examines, from a local perspective, the diverse ways in which social enterprise has emerged in different regions. Each chapter examines the conceptualization, history, legal and political frameworks, supporting institutions, and latest developments and challenges for social enterprise in a given region or country. In the final chapter, Janelle A. Kerlin presents a comparative analysis of the various models and contexts for social enterprise, showing how particular strengths in each environment lead to different enterprise initiative models.

Published by: Tufts University Press

Series: Civil Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

Front Cover

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pp. c-c

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi


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pp. vii-vii


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pp. viii-viii


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pp. ix-x

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pp. xi-xviii

Field organizations, corresponding to what we now call ‘‘social enterprises,’’ have existed since well before the mid-1990s when the term began to be increasingly used in both Western Europe and the United States. Indeed, the third sector, be it called the nonprofit sector or the social economy, has long witnessed entrepreneurial dynamics that resulted in...


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pp. xix-xxvi


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pp. xxvii-xxviii

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1: Introduction

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pp. 1-11

Social enterprise has been a growing global phenomenon for over two decades.∞ Though the concept of using market-based approaches to address social issues is not new in many societies, use of the term ‘‘social enterprise’’ to describe specific, often innovative, types of this kind of activity is new. Around the world, common activities associated...

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2: Western Europe

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pp. 12-34

In Western Europe, according to Defourny and Nyssens (2006, p. 4), the concept of social enterprise ‘‘made its first appearance in the early 1990s, at the very heart of the third sector, following an impetus that was first Italian, linked closely with the cooperative movement.’’ Indeed, according to European tradition (Evers & Laville, 2004), the third...

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3: East-Central Europe

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pp. 35-63

Social enterprise in East-Central Europe has emerged from the concepts of the third sector, nonprofit organizations, and the social economy, including both institutionalized entities such as associations, foundations, and cooperatives and noninstitutionalized entities such as self-help groups and other initiatives without legal identity (see figure 3.1).

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4: Southeast Asia

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pp. 64-86

In Southeast Asia, the conceptual framework for social enterprise varies from country to country. Dr. Eduardo Morato of the Philippines created a theoretical framework in 1994 when social enterprise was a relatively unused concept. He postulated that ‘‘the social enterprise exists...

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5: United States

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pp. 87-113

Social enterprise in the United States is becoming a watchword in both nonprofit and business communities as a way of coupling the resources generated by market activities with the social ambitions of nonprofit organizations. While not a new concept, social enterprise labeled...

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6: Zimbabwe and Zambia

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pp. 114-138

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become universally recognized in African societies as key development actors. For ngos, social enterprise is a core strategy for social and economic development, and this is often evident in their mission statements. Some NGOs...

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7: Argentina

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pp. 139-162

This chapter describes and analyzes some characteristics of social enterprises that have appeared in Argentina over the last few years in response to social concerns that have affected the country. Broadly speaking, social enterprise, as used in this chapter, refers to any private...

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8: Japan

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pp. 163-183

Since the early 2000s, the concept of social enterprise has increasingly attracted public attention as an alternative business model for traditional nonprofit organizations, businesses, and public-private partnerships in Japan. Recently, the Japanese national government and some...

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9: A Comparison of Social Enterprise Models and Contexts

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pp. 184-200

In countries around the world, the term ‘‘social enterprise’’ is becoming increasingly associated with the broad idea of commercial revenue generation in the service of charitable activities. However, as the preceding chapters show, the concept is also becoming connected to a...


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pp. 201-212

Back Cover

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pp. bc-bc

E-ISBN-13: 9781584658160
E-ISBN-10: 1584658169
Print-ISBN-13: 9781584657897

Page Count: 240
Publication Year: 2009

Series Title: Civil Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
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OCLC Number: 647833118
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Social Enterprise

Research Areas


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Subject Headings

  • Social entrepreneurship -- Case studies.
  • Social responsibility of business -- Case studies.
  • Non-governmental organizations -- Case studies.
  • Nonprofit organizations -- Case studies.
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