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Imperial Citizen

Marriage and Citizenship in the Ottoman Frontier Provinces of Iraq

Karen M. Kern is assistant professor of history at Hunter College. She specializes in Middle East, Ottoman, and world history. She has published numerous articles in such journals as Turkish Studies Association Journal and the Arab Studies Journal.

Publication Year: 2011

Imperial Citizen considers the geopolitical necessities of Ottoman-Iranian/Sunni-Shi‘ite relations in the Iraqi frontier provinces in the late 19th-early 20th century through an examination of Ottoman centralization policies, and the impact of those policies on Ottoman citizenship laws and on the institution of marriage.

Published by: Syracuse University Press


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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. vii-viii


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pp. ix-x

A Note on Transliteration

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pp. xi-xii


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pp. xiii-xvi

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pp. 1-30

This book is an examination of how the Ottoman Empire adopted and adapted the concepts of nationality and citizenship to the geopolitical exigencies of controlling its easternmost frontier provinces in Iraq during the final fifty years of its existence. Th e constraint that defined these...

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1. The Historical Background of the Sunni-Shi‘ i Conflict

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pp. 31-60

Th e Ottomans emerged and consolidated their empire from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries—a period when regional Muslim dynasties were the norm. In the thirteenth century, the Mongols overran Baghdad and conquered much of western Asia. In Egypt, the Mamluk...

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2. The Challenge of Shi‘ i Conversion Activity to Ottoman Control of Iraq

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pp. 61-88

The prohibition of marriages between Ottoman women and Iranian men was enacted against the backdrop of one of the most important geopolitical issues between the Ottoman and Iranian Empires—the conversion of the Sunni population of Iraq to Shi‘ism. Th e importance...

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3. From Subjecthood to Citizenship

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pp. 89-113

The Ottoman concept of citizenship developed within the framework of an “official nationalism,” which attempted to create a “willed merger of nation and dynastic empire.”1 By the 1860s, reformers began to promote the imperial ideology of Ottomanism (Osmanlılık) to try to...

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4. The Impact of the Marriage Prohibition on the Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

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pp. 114-137

Inherent in the concept of citizenship as constructed by the centralizing monarchies of the nineteenth century was the notion that the citizen was a member of a community, which was concerned with the collective interests of the state. The citizen had certain compulsory...

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5. Continuity and Challenges to the Marriage Prohibition During the Transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic

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pp. 138-144

During the Constitutional Period (1909–1918), the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) confronted the precariousness of security on the empire’s borders, as the result of the arrival of thousands of Muslim and Jewish refugees and the outbreak of World War...

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6. Conclusion

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pp. 145-154

The prohibition of marriage between Ottoman women and Iranian men, enacted by law in 1874, was employed in this book as a framework and departure point to examine and analyze two larger issues of concern to scholars specializing in the history of the late Ottoman Empire...

Appendix A: Supreme Mandate (Buyruldu-ı ‘Ali)Concerning the Prohibition of Marriage with Iranians of 5 January 1822

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pp. 155-156

Appendix B: Law of Ottoman Nationality of 19 January 1869

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pp. 157-158

Appendix C: Law Protecting the Prohibition of Marriage Between Iranians and Ottoman Citizens of 7 October 1874

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pp. 159-160

Appendix D: Draft Law Concerning the Prohibition of Marriage Between Ottoman Women and Iranian Men of 26 May 1914

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pp. 161-162

Appendix E: Law Concerning the Preservation of the Prohibition of Marriage Between Iranian and Turkish Citizens of 26 April 1926

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pp. 163-164


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pp. 165-180


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pp. 181-186

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9780815650812
E-ISBN-10: 0815650817
Print-ISBN-13: 9780815632856
Print-ISBN-10: 0815632851

Page Count: 200
Publication Year: 2011

Edition: 1

OCLC Number: 830023734
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Imperial Citizen

Research Areas


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Subject Headings

  • Shīʻah -- Relations -- Sunnites.
  • Sunnites -- Relations -- Shīʻah.
  • Citizenship -- Turkey.
  • Impediments to marriage -- Turkey.
  • Impediments to marriage -- Iraq.
  • Marriage law -- Iraq -- History.
  • Marriage law -- Turkey -- History.
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