Frontmatter

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Title Page

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p. iii

Copyright Page

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p. iv

Table of Contents

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p. v

List of Illustrations

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p. vii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xi

This book got its start in a graduate seminar in urban history taught in 1997 by Marilynn Johnson, whose book The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay during World War II lit up my historical imagination. War mobilization and the complicated social geography of the American West became instant fascinations. So too did the commonalities between ...

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Introduction: Discovering the Inverse-Utopian West

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pp. 1-33

Hard as it is to believe, there is a ghost town in the center of the Portland International Raceway. The foundations are vaguely discernible at the center of the track, and the stories are etched into the collective memory of lifelong Portlanders. For most, the details are vague: Vanport City (later shortened to “Vanport”) was one of the many ...

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1. Beware of Crafty Bandits: Enmification in the Empire for Liberty

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pp. 35-82

In his first fireside chat after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt prepared Americans to “face a long war against crafty and powerful bandits” because “the attack at Pearl Harbor can be repeated at any one of many points in both oceans and along both our coast lines and against all the rest of the Hemisphere.” ...

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2. The Great Citizenship Pantomime: Politics and Power in a Barbed-Wire Democracy

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pp. 83-125

In 1946 War Relocation Authority (WRA) officials took stock of their relocation program. The “cultural structure of realistic democracy” spawned a system of homegrown, self-contained political organs that functioned separately from the American body politic, in which fully enfranchised citizens enjoyed real political efficacy. Historian ...

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3. Cultivating Dependency: Economics and Education in America's Inverse Utopias

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pp. 126-170

“American freedom” rests on two pillars: citizen participation in the democratic process and economic independence, which includes equality of opportunity and upward mobility. This vision has been revered and re-embodied across time, from Thomas Jefferson’s image of the yeoman farmer to Frederick Jackson Turner’s intrepid frontiersman ...

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4. Tragic Ironies: Everyday Life in an Inverse Utopia

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pp. 171-212

During the 1913 commemoration of the Modoc War, Oliver Cromwell Applegate, speaking as former superintendent of the Klamath Reservation, lauded the unusually bright “race of fighters” who, after having “finally succumbed to the control of our race” became one of the wealthiest, most “advanced” tribal groups in the reservation system ...

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5. From Barbed Wire to Bootstraps: Freedom and Community in Cold War America

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pp. 213-249

In April 1944 Fortune magazine warned readers that “the ‘protective custody’ [of the Japanese] of 1942 and 1943 cannot end otherwise than in a kind of Indian reservation, to plague the conscience of Americans for many years to come.”1 The War Relocation Authority (WRA) had the same concerns; throughout the political tumult of the ...

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6. Termination of the Klamath Reservation: From Inverse Utopia to Indian Dystopia

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pp. 250-275

Americans everywhere celebrated the dawn of a new era of peace and prosperity in 1950. In contrast, many former Topazians, Vanporters, and Los Alamosans struggled to recover from a decade of displacement, stigmatization, and involuntary dependency on government agencies that left them abandoned and alienated. Washington’s zeal ...

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7. No Camps for Commies: The Dual Legacies of Dissonance and Dissidents

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pp. 276-312

In 1950, as federal bureaucrats and their former wards assessed the results of their inverse-utopian experiments, Senator Pat McCarran sounded a warning to the American people. In a speech reminiscent of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s post–Pearl Harbor fireside chat about the threat from “crafty and powerful bandits” in Japan, McCarran ...

Notes

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pp. 313-350

Bibliography

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pp. 351-372

Index

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pp. 373-398