Title Page, Copyright Page

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CONTENTS

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About the Author

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Other Works in the Series

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Foreword

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pp. xi-xiii

On April 19, 2007, the Russell Sage Foundation will celebrate its centennial, 100 years to the day since Margaret Olivia Sage dedicated the foundation, in her husband’s name, “to the . . .

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvii

In her presidential address to the American Sociological Association, Barbara Reskin (2003) called for social scientists to forgo their obsession with the modeling of motives in favor of a new . . .

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1. How Stratification Works

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pp. 1-27

All human societies have a social structure that divides people into categories based on a combination of achieved and ascribed traits. Achieved characteristics are those acquired in the . . .

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2. The Rise and Fall of Egalitarian Capitalism

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pp. 28-50

The twentieth century was notable for its accelerated rate of change. Never in the course of a mere one hundred years did human beings have to adapt to so many technological, social, . . .

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3. Reworking the Color Line

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pp. 51-112

The American civil rights movement came together in the 1950s, culminated in the 1960s, and wound down in the 1970s. The bookend events that define this era in U.S. history are the 1954 . . .

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4. Building a Better Underclass

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pp. 113-157

African Americans are not the only disadvantaged minority group in the United States, of course. In the sweep of American history, many groups have become targets of prejudice and . . .

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5. Remaking the Political Economy

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pp. 158-210

The prior two chapters have described categorical processes that operate in the United States to perpetuate ethnic and racial inequalities. Although whites no longer espouse racist beliefs in . . .

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6. Engendering Inequality

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pp. 211-241

Perhaps the oldest and most durable categorical distinction that human beings make is between men and women. All human societies engender the social world by assigning different attributes . . .

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7. America Unequal

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pp. 242-260

Stratification does not just happen. It is produced by specific arrangements in human societies that allow exploitation and opportunity hoarding to occur along categorical . . .

Notes

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pp. 261-261

References

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pp. 263-301

Index

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pp. 303-391