Handbook of Research Synthesis, The
Publication Year: 1993
Published by: Russell Sage Foundation
Title Page, Copyright
The Handbook of Research Synthesis is an attempt to bring together in a single volume state-of-the-art descriptions of every phase of the research synthesis process, from problem formulation...
Part I: Introduction
1. Research Synthesis as a Scientific Enterprise
From the moment we are introduced to science we are told it is a cooperative, cumulative enterprise. Like the artisans who construct a building from blueprints, bricks, and mortar...
Part II: Formulating a Problem for a Research Synthesis
2. Hypotheses and Problems in Research Synthesis
In the social, behavioral, and medical sciences, investigators wish to strengthen their methods of accumulating evidence. They have been dissatisfied with the classical literature review...
3. Statistical Considerations
Research synthesis is an empirical process. As with any empirical research, statistical considerations have an influence at many points in the process. Some of these considerations...
Part III: Searching the Literature
4. Scientific Communication and Literature Retrieval
An essential aspect Of science is communication of findings (Ziman 1968). Following analysts such as Ackoff et al. (1976), we can conveniently divide scientific communication...
5. Using Reference Databases
The objective of this chapter is to introduce literature search sources and methods that will be of use to the research synthesist. Our focus is on machine-readable databases...
6. Research Registers
Research synthesis would be a far easier task if there were registers of all initiated research projects. A research register can be defined as a database of research studies...
7. The Fugitive Literature
This chapter describes methods of retrieving hard-to-find ("fugitive") literature and information on particular areas of research. The elusive information may be about a research report...
Part IV: Evaluating the Literature
8. Judging Research Quality
The discussion about judging research quality in synthesis dates to Glass's unveiling of "meta-analysis" in the November 1976 issue of the Educational Researcher (Glass 1976). Prior...
9. Identifying Potentially Interesting Variables and Analysis Opportunities
Research synthesis relies on information that is reported in a selection of studies on a topic of interest. The purpose of this chapter is to review the types of variables often available...
10. Systematic Coding for Research Synthesis
Research synthesists must make many decisions before the actual coding of studies begins: They must choose the study characteristics of interest, and conventions for coding them...
11. Evaluating Coding Decisions
Coding is a critical part of research synthesis. It represents an attempt to reduce a complex, messy, context-laden, and quantification-resistant reality to a matrix of numbers. Thus, it will...
12. Methods for Handling Missing Data in Research Synthesis
Previous chapters of this volume have outlined how to define a research question for a research synthesis, develop a comprehensive search for literature, obtain a representative sample...
13. Managing Meta-Analytic Databases
This chapter addresses topics of interest to specialists who may be involved in collecting and processing data in research syntheses: data coders, data entry personnel, statisticians...
Part V: Statistically Describing and Combining Studies
14. Vote-Counting Procedures in Meta-Analysis
The meta-analyst generally has access to at least one of three types of data from research reports: (a) information that can be used to calculate effect size estimates (e.g., means...
15. Combining Significance Levels
This chapter discusses methods for combining probability values (or significance levels) from independent significance tests. These "combined significance" methods have a long...
16. Parametric Measures of Effect Size
The heart of the enterprise of synthesizing research consists of comparing and combining the results of individual studies of a particular, focused research question...
17. Measures of Effect Size for Categorical Data
In many studies measurements are made on binary rather than numerical scales. Examples include studies of attitudes or opinions (the two categories for the response variable being...
18. Combining Estimates of Effect Size
In 1896, Sir Almroth Wright developed a vaccine to protect against typhoid (Susser 1977; Wright, incidentally, was a colleague and mentor of Sir Alexander Fleming, who later discovered...
Part VI: Statistically Analyzing Effect Sizes
19. Fixed Effects Models
A central question in research synthesis is whether methodological, contextual, or substantive variations in research studies are related to variations in effect size parameters. Both fixed...
20. Random Effects Models
A skilled researcher who wishes to assess the generalizability of findings from a single study will try to select a sample that represents the target population. The researcher...
21. Correcting for Sources of Artificial Variation Across Studies
Every study has imperfections. In some cases we can define precisely what a perfect study might be, and thus we can say that the effect size value obtained from any real study...
Part VII: Special Statistical Issues and Problems
22. Stochastically Dependent Effect Sizes
Much of the literature on meta-analysis deals with analyzing effect sizes obtained from k independent studies in each of which a single treatment is compared with a control...
23. Examining Explanatory Models Through Research Synthesis
This chapter describes a way to bring substantive theory directly into the process of research synthesis, something that critics of quantitative research synthesis have claimed is missing...
24. Sensitivity Analysis and Diagnostics
At every step in a research synthesis decisions are made that can affect the conclusions and inferences drawn from the analysis. Sometimes, a decision is easy to defend...
25. Publication Bias
The style of reporting the results of a research study in a journal article is governed as much by human nature as by the tradition of scientific objectivity. That is, research studies...
26. Bayesian Approaches to Research Synthesis
As in other scientific studies, efficient design, conduct, and analysis of a research synthesis requires that investigators use expert opinion and empirical evidence from previous...
Part VIII: Reporting the Results of Research Synthesis
27. The Reporting Format
Several articles examining the quality of published research syntheses or meta-analyses have appeared in journals in both the behavioral sciences and medicine...
28. The Visual Presentation and Interpretation of Meta-Analyses
A large proportion of meta-analyses in education and the social sciences, including many that we consider excellent, pose a surprising challenge. The reader must struggle to figure...
Part IX: Tying Research Synthesis to Substantive Issues
29. Meta-Analytic Synthesis for Theory Development
In this chapter we contend that some of the features of meta-analysis make it superior to individual studies for testing and formulating theories. In section 2 we discuss the ambiguous...
30. Using Research Syntheses to Plan Future Research
A quantitative synthesis of research is typically not an endpoint or final step in the investigation of a research topic. A formal synthesis rarely offers an integration that is conclusive...
Part X: Summary
31. Threats to the Validity of Research Syntheses
Although the list of validity threats we present is relevant to research synthesis practice, it is not definitive. All threats are empirical products. Any list of threats should change as theories...
32. Potentials and Limitations of Research Synthesis
We suspect that readers of this volume reacted to it in one of two distinct ways: They may have been overwhelmed by the number and complexity of the issues that face...
Appendix A: Data Sets
Appendix B: Tables
Page Count: 592
Publication Year: 1993
OCLC Number: 835507617
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Handbook of Research Synthesis, The