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The Cross and the Rising Sun, Volume 2

The British Protestant Missionary Movement in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, 1865-1945

A. Hamish Ion

Publication Year: 2009

The influx of Protestant missionaries from Britain to Japan, Korea and Taiwan was an integral part of the British presence in East Asia from 1865 to 1945. Ion draws on both British and Japanese sources to examine the life, work and attitudes of the British missionaries, women and men, who ventured far from their homeland to preach the gospel. He explores the role played by British Protestants as both Christian missionaries and informal ambassadors of their own country and civilization. Through their educational, social and medical work the missionaries helped introduce Western ideas and social pursuits which in turn affected different facets of society and culture in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The study illustrates how the British missionaries’ intent to introduce Christianity was affected by the response of the East Asians to Western ideas.

In describing the high drama of the British missionary movement’s pioneering days in the late nineteenth century to its persecution during the late 1930s, Ion casts light on a particular, yet important, aspect of the changing tides of Anglo-Japanese relations. This book will ably complement his previous study of Canadian missionaries in East Asia during the same period.

Chosen as one of the 15 outstanding books of 1993 for mission studies by the International Bulletin of Missionary Research.

Published by: Wilfrid Laurier University Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv


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pp. v-vi

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pp. vii-vii

This book owes much to the assistance and encouragement of a great many people over the course of nearly 20 years, and it is my pleasure to be able to thank them publicly. I am especially grateful to Dr. Gordon Daniels of Sheffield University, who has profoundly influenced my approach to Japanese history since his days as my thesis supervisor. Professor Matsuzawa Hiroaki of Hokkaido University has been a faithful ...


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pp. viii-viii


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pp. ix-xii

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pp. 1-7

This book investigates the life, work, and attitudes of British Protestant men and women missionaries in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan from 1865 until the end of the Pacific War. It studies the part played by British Protestants as both Christian missionaries and informal agents of their own country and civilization. Spanning 80 years, it examines the adjustments and responses of British missionaries to the changing conditions...

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CHAPTER ONE Beginnings of the British Missionary Movement in Japan and Taiwan

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pp. 8-27

The British missionaries who went out to Japan, Korea, and Taiwan were members of an overseas movement that had a relatively short tradition. The reasons why it developed and how it was organized at home are important in helping to explain the reaction of missionaries to Japan. Perhaps because they were the furthest away from Britain, the three mission fields which came to make up the Japanese Empire...

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CHAPTER TWO The First Years

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pp. 28-58

The aim of the pioneer British missionaries in Japan was to build a strong church organization which would provide a firm foundation for later expansion. They saw their main task as the establishment of churches patterned on the British model. As early as 1877, the United Presbyterian Church joined with the American Presbyterian and the Dutch Reformed Church of the United States to form a union Presbyterian...

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CHAPTER THREE Growing Missions in Japan,Taiwan, and Korea

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pp. 59-88

The years from 1889 to 1905 saw considerable growth in British missions in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. This missionary expansion took place despite both domestic and international political crises which caused Japanese attitudes to the West to fluctuate. During this time Japan fought two major wars, the first against China and the second against Russia. Victory in the Russo-Japanese War meant that Japan...

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CHAPTER FOUR British Missionary Life in the Japanese Empire

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pp. 89-116

The way in which British missionaries lived in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan greatly affected their perceptions of the people among whom they lived and their culture. Just as importantly, it also significantly influenced Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese perceptions of them. The missionaries' lifestyle determined the pattern of their contact with the peoples of the Japanese Empire and their knowledge of Japan and its two colonies. Certainly ...

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CHAPTER FIVE Evangelism in the New Century

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pp. 117-149

In 1904 Herbert Moore, who had served as an SPG missionary during the 1890s, noted in his popular account, The Christian Faith in Japan, that "it is good to be zealous in a good cause, but zeal must be according to knowledge; and a careful observer would be hardly likely to anticipate the speedy triumph of the Cross."1 The evangelistic work of the British missionary societies in the Japanese Empire certainly

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CHAPTER SIX Educational and Medical Work

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pp. 150-184

Educational work was perceived by all missionaries as an important conduit through which to reach the young of the Japanese Empire. Although the educational endeavour of British missions ran the gamut of institutions from kindergartens to training colleges for full-time church workers, both male and female, it was on a small scale. In part this was simply from a lack of resources, for the educational pie could...

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CHAPTER SEVEN Democracy and Imperialism

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pp. 185-207

The rapid rate of political and social change in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries greatly affected the educational and evangelistic work of British missionaries. Missionary attitudes to these changes are important to a full understanding of missionary reactions to Japanese development. While their views of political and social affairs were closely related to...

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CHAPTER EIGHT Toward the Pacific War

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pp. 208-250

During the 1930s, Christianity in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan was faced with unprecedented challenges owing to the extraordinary nature of the social, political, economic, and military problems which confronted Japan both at home and abroad. As a result, profound and far-reaching decisions concerning the development of both the Christian movement and the missionary movement were hurriedly taken in an atmosphere ...

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CHAPTER NINE Through the Fire of War

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pp. 251-256

Seventy-six years passed between the time of James Laidlaw Maxwell taking up permanent residence in Taiwan and the attacks on Kota Bharu, Hong Kong, and Pearl Harbor that began the Pacific War for Britain. A few years earlier, in the late 1930s, the British connection had come to haunt both the Salvation Army and the Nippon Seikokai, which became particular targets for the Japanese authorities because of ...

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pp. 257-265

This book has charted, over a period of 80 years, the course of the British missionary movement in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Against a background of changing political, economic, military, and religious fortunes, British missionaries practised Anglo-Japanese relations at the personal level. Although the legacy of such an approach cannot be measured in material terms, it produced 'profound and lasting results....


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pp. 266-301

Select Bibliography

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pp. 302-317


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pp. 318-324

E-ISBN-13: 9780889207615
Print-ISBN-13: 9780889202184

Page Count: 336
Publication Year: 2009

OCLC Number: 647901139
MUSE Marc Record: Download for The Cross and the Rising Sun, Volume 2

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Subject Headings

  • Missions -- Japan.
  • Missions -- East Asia.
  • Missions, Canadian -- Japan -- History.
  • Missions, Canadian -- East Asia -- History.
  • Missions, British -- Japan -- History.
  • Missions, British -- East Asia -- History.
  • Protestant churches -- Missions -- Japan -- History.
  • Protestant churches -- Missions -- East Asia -- History.
  • Japan -- Church history.
  • East Asia -- Church history.
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