Cover, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. vii

List of Illustrations

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p. ix

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

This book has been years in the making and a number of very special people have contributed to its growth—even if they weren’t always aware of having done so. For their lifelong love and support in whatever I’ve chosen to do, I thank Kathy...

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Introduction: “Carved in Flesh”

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pp. 1-12

Two of the most visually striking figures in nineteenth-century American literature are Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Hester Prynne and Herman Melville’s Queequeg. Both stand out primarily for their marked bodies, for the ways in which their personal...

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1. Capturing Identity in Ink: Tattooing and the White Captive

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pp. 13-48

Claiming to have 365 designs tattooed onto her body, Nora Hildebrandt was employed by Bunnell’s Museum in New York City in 1882 as a “tattooed lady,” one of the first in U.S. history. Her tattoos and the narrative behind them attracted curious...

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2. “Burning into the Bone”: Romantic Love and the Marked Woman

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pp. 49-73

In George Thompson’s sensational novel City Crimes; or Life in New York and Boston (1849), the sensual libertine Josephine Franklin is punished for denying her sexual favors to the villainous Dead Man, a criminal who murders, mutilates, and blackmails...

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3. “Tattooed Still”: The Inscription of Female Agency

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pp. 74-98

The erasure of disfiguration from the female body, enacted rhetorically in Herman Melville’s Typee and in the memoirs of Susan Thompson Lewis Parrish, became a reality in the late nineteenth century with advancements in medicine and...

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4. “The Skin of an American Slave”: The Mark of African American Manhood in Abolitionist Literature

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pp. 99-129

When the Civil War began in April 1861, African American men attempted in vain to volunteer for military service. As historian Jim Cullen writes, “The efforts of abolitionists to the contrary, secession, not slavery, was the pretext for the outbreak of hostilities...

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5. “Raising the Stigma”: African American Women and the Corporeal Legacy of Slavery

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pp. 130-153

In the preface to her novel, Contending Forces: A Romance Illustrative of Negro Life North and South (1900), Pauline Hopkins claims that she writes in order to “raise the stigma of degradation from [her] race” (13). The use of the word “stigma” here in...

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Epilogue: Tattooed Ladies

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pp. 154-162

Irene Woodward, the “tattooed lady” who appeared on stage just weeks after the debut of Nora Hildebrandt, told the New York Times that she had decided to exhibit herself after seeing Captain Costentenus, the man who claimed he had been forcibly tattooed...

Notes

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pp. 163-177

Works Cited

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pp. 179-190

Index

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pp. 191-195