Cover, Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiii

Projects like this often seem interminable, in part because they are collaborations of the largest magnitude. During the long years in which this book moved from concept to reality, I have accumulated many friendships as well as debts...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-16

This book tells several stories. The first follows Isabel Criolla, a runaway slave who stood before the Spanish governor of Cartagena de Indias and begged him not to return her to her cruel mistress, saying that if she was sent back she would...

Part I: Isabel: “If Her Soul Was Condemned, It Would Be the Authorities’ Fault”

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pp. 17-62

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1. Contesting the Boundaries of Anti-Christian Cruelty in Cartagena de Indias

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pp. 19-37

On the morning of April 4, 1639, a guard unshackled the runaways one by one and brought them from the cell in the public jail before a scribe, where they were made to state for the record their masters’ names and the length of time they had been absent from service...

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2. Imperial Intercession and Master-Slave Relations in Spanish Caribbean Hinterlands

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pp. 38-50

Isabel Criolla’s journey to Cartagena likely gave her ample time to think of how she would represent her dilemma and that of the other women in Camargo’s control before Cartagena’s governor. As an American-born enslaved women...

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3. Law, Religion, Social Contract, and Slavery’s Daily Negotiations

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pp. 51-62

By the time Lorenzo de Soto returned to Cartagena to deliver his report to the governor, news had yet to reach the Americas that earlier that year, Pope Urban VIII had publicly condemned the slave trade, calling it “a means to deprive...

Part II: Nicolas: “To Live and Die as a Catholic Christian”

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pp. 63-105

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4. Northern European Protestants in the Spanish Caribbean

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pp. 65-80

In October 1651, Inquisition officials from Cartagena de Indias traveled to Jamaica to investigate the murder of the island’s governor, don Pedro Caballero, who also held a position as an Inquisition official, meaning that his killer would be tried under their jurisdiction...

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5. Empire, Bureaucracy, and Escaping the Spanish Inquisition

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pp. 81-91

On September 28, 1652, Nicolas was brought to the main audience chamber to hear the Tribunal formally charge him with the crime of Calvinism. The accusation alleged that he must have been comprehensively educated in the very fundamentals...

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6. Conversion, Coercion, and Tolerance in Old and New Worlds

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pp. 92-105

After bowing to the Tribunal’s serious threats to employ torture, Nicolas returned to his cellmates with a story. Juan de Noguera reported that when Nicolas came back that morning, he was quieter than usual. Murillo said that Nicolas later...

Part III: Henry: “Such as will truck for Trade with darksome things”

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pp. 107-146

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7. Cromwellian Political Economy and the Pursuit of New World Promise

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pp. 109-118

The day after Christmas 1654, Henry Whistler, a man of considerable sailing experience, waited aboard a ship anchored on the Thames as the cannon fired, a signal to call passengers on board. Whistler took advantage of the lull before the journey to begin...

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8. The Politics of Economic Exclusion: Plunder, Masculinity, and “Piety”

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pp. 119-133

Leaving the English islands for their chosen target of Hispaniola, the commanders of the expedition tried to refocus the company on their religious mission, ordering a day of fasting and waiting on the Lord. As their stomachs growled...

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9. Anxieties of Interracial Alliances, Black Resistance, and the Specter of Slavery

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pp. 134-146

Caer’s comments about his fellow Protestants being forced to work “as if they were slaves”1 are worth closer attention, for they hint at subterranean anxieties about the politics of labor exploitation and race that plagued Interregnum...

Part IV: Nell, Yaff, and Lewis: “He hath made all Nations of one Blood”

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pp. 147-197

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10. Quakers, Slavery, and the Challenges of Universalism

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pp. 149-165

When news reached Barbados that Cromwell’s troops had failed in Hispaniola and were struggling to survive in Jamaica, Colonel Lewis Morris of Ape’s Hill must have said a silent prayer of thanks to God that he had declined Cromwell’s commission...

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11. Evangelization and Insubordination: Authority and Stability in Quaker Plantations

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pp. 166-180

With George Fox and several others in attendance, Colonel Morris’s household would have been a flurry of activity. The topic that reportedly occupied most of the visitors’ time was how Friends might best “settle” their membership in a more...

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12. Inclusion, the Protestant Ethic, and the Silences of Atlantic Capitalism

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pp. 181-197

Yet Yaff and Nell likely continued, cautiously, to seek a sense of sacred kinship with Lewis and Marie, for those personal bonds were the keys to a sense of security—salvation in the form of protection from the common rigors of their bondage...

Conclusion: Cynicism and Redemption

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13. Religion, Empire, and the Atlantic Economy at the Turn of the Eighteenth Century

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pp. 201-230

In 1720, a new pirate adventure by Daniel Defoe, The Adventures of Captain Singleton, became a best seller, bringing readers into the world of maritime captives and pirates, not to mention the first imagined journey across the African...

Notes

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pp. 231-301

Index

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pp. 303-309