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The Cross and the Rising Sun, Volume 1

The Canadian Protestant Missionary Movement in the Japanese Empire, 1872-1931

A. Hamish Ion

Publication Year: 2009

Drawing on both Canadian and Japanese sources, this book investigates the life, work, and attitudes of Canadian Protestant missionaries in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (the three main constituent parts of the pre-1945 Japanese empire) from the arrival of the first Canadian missionary in East Asia in 1872 until 1931. Canadian missionaries made a significant contribution to the development of the Protestant movement in the Japanese Empire. Yet their influence also extended far beyond the Christian sphere. Through their educational, social, and medical work; their role in introducing new Western ideas and social pursuits; and their outspoken criticism of the brutalities of Japanese rule in colonial Korea and Taiwan, the activities of Canadian missionaries had an impact on many different facets of society and culture in the Japanese Empire. Missionaries residing in the Japanese Empire served as a link between citizens of Japan and Canada and acted as trusted interpreters of things Japanese to their home constituents.

Published by: Wilfrid Laurier University Press

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. vii-viii

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pp. ix-x

A great many people have encouraged me over the years in the study and research for this book, and it is my pleasure to be able to thank them publicly. Professor Nobuya Bamba introduced me to the delights and hard work of Japanese...

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pp. xi-xviii

The vast canon of literature about Christian missions, the extensive archival holdings of the various Missionary Societies, and the extraneous materials held in government archives make the records of the Protestant missionary movement one of the richest veins...


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pp. xix-xxviii

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pp. 1-17

This book is a study of an epic Canadian adventure in the Japanese Empire-the Protestant missionary movement from Canada to Japan, Korea and Taiwan from its beginnings in 1872 until the Manchurian Crisis of 1931. It deals with...

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1. Home Base and Overseas Missions

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pp. 18-34

The Protestant churches in Canada underwent profound changes between 1872 and 1931; until the creation of the United Church of Canada in 1925, there was an almost continuous process of union and amalgamation. Although church union...

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2. Early Days in Japan

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pp. 35-50

George Cochran and Davidson McDonald arrived in Japan in mid- 1873 to establish a Methodist church patterned on the Canadian model. These pioneer missionaries saw their role as simply one of building a strong church organization...

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3. The Koishikawa Band

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pp. 51-70

When McDonald went to Shizuoka, George Cochran began teaching outside the confines of the treaty ports in Koishikawa ward in Tokyo. His post was at the Dojinsha school, a private school run by Nakamura Keiii who had previously...

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4. Contrasts in Japan and Taiwan

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pp. 71-86

In the mid-1870s, the Canadian Methodist mission was able to expand its work away from the two original centres in Shizuoka and Koishikawa. The opportunity to begin evangelistic activity in Numazu and in the hinterland...

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5. Christianization in Japan

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pp. 87-101

The fifty years from 1881 mark a long period of tranquillity before the crises of the 1930s. An epoch of institution building, these years would prove to be the golden age of the missionary movement. It was during this period that the flood-tide of the voluntary...

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6. Missionary Life in the Japanese Empire

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pp. 102-115

The opportunities for Christianity in the mid-1880s, which Eby sought to exploit through his Self-Support Band and the Central Tabernacle, also saw the missionary movement itself turning from an endeavour dependent upon the efforts...

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7. Missionaries and Education

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pp. 116-146

While Charles Eby devoted his enormous energy during the 1880s and 1890s to direct evangelism, other Canadian Methodists began to concentrate their attention on the development of mission schools. Education quickly emerged...

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8. Evangelism and Social Work

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pp. 147-177

The years after Eby's withdrawal from Japan in the mid-lS90s saw enormous changes take place in Japanese society, but Canadian missionaries were slow to adapt their evangelistic work to the changing circumstances. This was partly...

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9. Democracy and Imperialism

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pp. 178-214

The educational and evangelistic work of Canadian missionaries was affected by political and social changes taking place in the Japanese Empire. This is clearly seen in the regulations concerning schools in the Japanese Empire and also in the impact...

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10. Toward the Future

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pp. 215-221

The Canadian missionary movement in the Japanese Empire began at a time when many Canadians believed that the onward march of Western civilization made not only the Europeanization of Africa and Asia a possibility but also the Christianization of the entire world...


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pp. 222-247

Select Bibliography

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pp. 248-261


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pp. 262-276

E-ISBN-13: 9780889207608
Print-ISBN-13: 9780889209770

Page Count: 304
Publication Year: 2009

OCLC Number: 556837009
MUSE Marc Record: Download for The Cross and the Rising Sun, Volume 1

Research Areas


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Subject Headings

  • Missions -- Japan.
  • Missions -- East Asia.
  • Missions, Canadian -- Japan -- History.
  • Missions, Canadian -- East Asia -- History.
  • Missions, British -- Japan -- History.
  • Missions, British -- East Asia -- History.
  • Protestant churches -- Missions -- Japan -- History.
  • Protestant churches -- Missions -- East Asia -- History.
  • Japan -- Church history.
  • East Asia -- Church history.
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