Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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List of Charts

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p. viii

List of Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Satellite Names

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

The completion of this book project brings with it the need to thank a diverse group of people who have assisted me along the way. First and foremost, I need to offer a hearty thank you to Donald J. Mrozek, who served as my mentor. In addition to providing advice, words of encouragement, and guidance, he always made...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-6

The spectacular shooting down of a nonresponsive spy satellite by the US Navy’s USS Lake Erie on February 19, 2008, and the Chinese interception of a Fengyun-1C weather satellite on January 11, 2007, focused the attention of the American public, space experts, and the US military on the strategic importance of outer space. These...

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Chapter 1: Establishing the Foundation for the Militarization of Space, 1945–1952

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pp. 7-25

The years 1945–1952 are not usually considered part of the space age, yet these years witnessed the intellectual beginning of the US military space program and the origin of US policy to promote space as a peaceful place for nations to explore. In fall 1945 through spring 1946, the US Navy (USN), the US Army Air Force (AAF), and...

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Chapter 2: Embracing the Militarization of Space, 1953–1960

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pp. 26-59

Military space activity dramatically increased during Dwight D. Eisenhower’s administration. Unlike his predecessor, Eisenhower took an active and direct interest in space- related issues and, more specifically, he firmly embraced the use of satellites for military and peaceful missions. Building upon the research done on satellites by the RAND...

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Chapter 3: Kennedy, Disarmament, and FOBS

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pp. 60-88

While maintaining the key military space programs begun during Eisenhower’s presidency, John F. Kennedy strove to demonstrate the US commitment to peaceful exploration and non- aggressive military uses of space and built on Eisenhower’s pledge to keep space free of weapons. To demonstrate, Kennedy capitalized on the Soviet Union’s expressed interest in orbital bombardment satellites by fundamentally shifting...

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Chapter 4: Lyndon Johnson and Space as a Weapons-Free Frontier, 1963–1967

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pp. 89-118

Under the leadership of Lyndon B. Johnson, the United States solidified its commitment to the military use of space and at the same time presided over the fulfillment of the objective of securing space as a weapons- free frontier by signing the Outer Space Treaty (OST) in 1967. Johnson also furthered US commitments to the use of ground- based ASAT and BMD systems to maintain national security. Like his immediate...

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Chapter 5: Continuity and Variation, 1946–1967

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pp. 119-131

From the onset of the Cold War, satellites and space programs evolved to become critical elements used to further the national security objectives of the United States. The early history of US efforts to build military satellites and militarize space has received far less attention than the history of the civilian programs of NASA. This disparity slights the fact that both the military and civilian space efforts served...

Appendix A: Chronology of Significant Events, 1946–1967

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pp. 133-138

Appendix B: US Space Spending

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pp. 139-142

Notes

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pp. 143-164

Bibliography

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pp. 165-175

Index

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pp. 177-182

Further Reading, Back Cover

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