Front Cover

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pp. C-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

The interdisciplinary nature of this manuscript required research in the fields of history, art history, religious studies, and literature; it would not have been possible for me to complete this book without the generous assistance of many individuals and organizations. I wish...

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Introduction

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pp. xiii-xx

The mythological creature known as tengu has had a long and complicated history in Japan. The earliest known reference to tengu in Japan is found in the eighth-century Nihon shoki (The Chronicles of Japan). The word “tengu” originated in China, where tian gou, as its literal...

Part 1. Tengu and Buddhist Concepts of Evil

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Chapter 1. From Malign Spirit to Manifestation of Ma

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pp. 3-31

Strange phenomena (kaii) were taken seriously by the people of medieval Japan.1 Rumbling mountains, cracks found in sacred images, the cries of foxes—all are frequently mentioned in the diaries of aristocrats as good or bad...

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Chapter 2. Tengudō, the Realm of Tengu

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pp. 32-52

Mappō, or the Age of the Final Dharma, held different meanings for various groups within the Buddhist community. Natural disasters and political upheavals were interpreted as signs of mappō, as were attachment to secular power by high-ranking clergy...

Part 2. Reading the Tengu Zōshi

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Chapter 3. Structure and Relationship to Existing Variant Scrolls

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pp. 55-90

The Tengu zōshi consists of seven extant illustrated scrolls: (1) Kōfukuji (a nineteenth-century copy), (2) Tōdaiji (a nineteenth-century copy), (3) Enryakuji, (4) Onjōji, (5) Tōji/Daigoji/Mount Kōya (hereafter, shortened to Tōji), (6) Miidera A, and (7) Miidera...

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Chapter 4. Critique of Kamakura Buddhism

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pp. 91-122

The first five scrolls of the Tengu zōshi—Kōfukuji, Tōdaiji, Enryakuji, Onjōji, and Tōji—are concerned with the seven major temples of Nara and Kyoto. For instance, Kōfukuji opens with the statement that the temple was founded by Fujiwara no Fuhito (659–720) and has...

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Chapter 5. The Onjōji Scroll and the Question of Authorship

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pp. 123-140

Scholars have yet to provide a definite answer to the question, “Who wrote the Tengu zōshi?” Most agree with art historians Umezu Jirō and Ueno Kenji that the author must have come from or been affiliated in some way to Enryakuji. 1 In his recent study of Zen and reformist...

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Chapter 6. The Definition of Ma

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pp. 141-160

In this chapter we will explore ma in the Tengu zōshi by first analyzing the scrolls’ visual representations of tengu. Of particular interest are the metamorphosis scenes and the wide variety of tengu types found throughout the Enryakuji scroll. First, we ask, how...

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Conclusion

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pp. 161-168

Thus far, we have looked at various images of tengu and their symbolism. In Chapter 1, we examined tengu as one of the many spirits that possessed a person and caused illness and how they were incorporated into the Buddhist cosmology as a manifestation of ma during...

Appendix: Comparative Table of the Onjōji Scroll and the 1319 Petition

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pp. 169-172

Abbreviations

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pp. 173-174

Notes

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pp. 175-188

Bibliography

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pp. 189-198

Index

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pp. 199-203

About the Author

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p. 204

Back Cover

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pp. B-1