Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

While writing this book, I have incurred debts of gratitude to many people and organizations. Numerous libraries, archives, and universities assisted me in my research. In Austria, the Institut für Kunstgeschichte at the University of Vienna...

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Introduction: Alois Riegl and Fin-de-Siècle Vienna

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pp. 1-24

In a letter written to Jean-Baptiste Colbert congratulating France on its scientific advances, the philosopher Wilhelm Gottfried von Leibniz claimed that man's interest in "the secret of the heavens, the greatness of the earth, and time...

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1. History, Temporality, and the Calendar

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pp. 25-50

"Here we are in fine condition to keep a record of past events!" scoffed Michel Montaigne in the 1580s. Only a few years after the Gregorian calendar reform, farmers still adhered to their own cycles of sowing and reaping...

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Part 1: Wellenberg und Wellenthal: History and Time in Fin-de-Siècle Austrian Thought

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pp. 51-131

Both Alois Riegl and his colleague Franz Wickhoff used the metaphor of waves (Wellenspiel, Wellenthal, Wellenberg) to describe the movements of art history.1 The towering stylistic influences of one artistic era often subside in the next...

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2. Franz Brentano and the In-existence of Time

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pp. 61-75

There was much to attract Riegl to the lectures of Franz Brentano, the renowned philosopher and religious iconoclast recently transplanted from Würzburg to Vienna. In 1874, on the heels of his appointment as professor of philosophy...

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3. Theodor von Sickel and the Institute for Austrian Historical Research

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pp. 77-88

In 1881, Riegl enrolled at the Institut für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, where he trained in the empiricist, documentary criticism pioneered by its chair, the historian Theodor von Sickel (1826-1908). Sickel was more of a methodologist...

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4. Max Büdinger's Universal History

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pp. 89-96

In an 1885 review of Alphons Müllner's Die Krypta in St. Florian, Riegl attacked speculative historiographies that based grand historical and national claims on limited empirical data. "[P]olyhistory alone," he wrote, "no longer suffices to answer...

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5. Robert Zimmermann's Philosophical Aesthetics

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pp. 97-104

Riegl attended two courses with the philosopher Robert Zimmermann, one on psychology, the other a history of philosophy. While the course titles do not indicate an emphasis on art or aesthetics, several commentators have detected...

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6. Moritz Thausing and the Science of Art History

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pp. 105-114

Many trends of nineteenth-century empiricist philosophy and history converged in the work of the Vienna School of Art History, which championed a scientific approach that stressed the empirical analysis of artworks. In 1873, the appointment...

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7. Franz Wickhoff, Alois Riegl, and the Structure of Art History

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pp. 115-131

Colleagues throughout their careers, Franz Wickhoff and Alois Riegl shared overlapping art historical concerns that grew out of a common intellectual background. Raised in Upper Austria and Vienna, Wickhoff (1853-1909) studied under...

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Part 2: Temporality and History in Riegl's Work

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pp. 133-217

In an 1887 review of Joseph Neuwirth's Studien zur Geschichte der Miniaturmalerei in Oesterreich, Riegl outlined two criteria he considered essential to a successful work of art history. An art historical text should include...

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8. History and the Perception of Monuments

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pp. 141-149

In 1902, Riegl was appointed editor of the journal of the Central Commission for the Research and Preservation of Artistic and Historical Monuments (Mitteilungen der k. k. Zentral-Kommission für Erforschung und Erhaltung der Kunst- und historischen Denkmale). Established in...

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9. Temporality in Visible Form

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pp. 151-163

Under the influence of Theodor von Sickel's Institute training, Alois Riegl conceived of artistic form in material terms, a notion that enabled him to base formalist conclusions on empirical research methods. Sickel's Merkmale - material clues...

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10. Seeing Time in The Group Portraiture of Holland

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pp. 165-177

Riegl's last major work, The Group Portraiture of Holland (1902), was written contemporaneously with "The Modern Cult of Monuments" and displayed a similar interest in historiography and temporality.1 Toward the end of the volume...

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11. The Anthropological Autonomy of Art

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pp. 179-186

In the introduction to Problems of Style, Riegl announced his formalist allegiances by defining art's unique historical significance in terms of perceptual form, not expressive or mimetic content. "A random scribble is not a form...

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12. Rhythm and Temporality in Problems of Style and Late Roman Art Industry

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pp. 187-200

In the final chapter of part 2, I examine Riegl's concepts of artistic form and historical continuity more closely by analyzing the fundamental regulatory principle of rhythm. In Riegl's work, rhythmic form organized art and nature...

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Conclusion

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pp. 201-217

In The Culture of Time and Space, Stephen Kern surveys what he calls the "distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing time and space" that emerged between 1880 and World War I.1 He explores the effects of technological...

Notes

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pp. 219-273

Bibliography

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pp. 275-293

Index

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pp. 295-300