Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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Figures and Tables

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

A project of this length is sustained by the guidance, friendship, and support of many people. While I am indebted to a multitude of friends, colleagues, mentors, and institutional staff, any faults of this work are my own....

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Introduction

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pp. 1-13

This work is a study of war opposition, an ‘‘inner civil war,’’ in the Pennsylvania Appalachians. It pursues the basic question why some rural northerners opposed the Civil War even to the point of violence. In its conception, it combines a regional study of the northern mountains with an examination into...

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1. The Lumber Region as Pennsylvania’s Appalachia

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pp. 14-27

In 1846, the prolific German travel writer Franz Von Loher observed how the Pennsylvania wilderness had shaped the character of mountain dwellers. Riding his horse into the Allegheny Mountains, he was soon overcome with ‘‘a deep sylvan desolation.’’ ‘‘Such thick...

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2. Patterns of Protest:The Raftsmen’s Rebellionof 1857

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pp. 28-43

The wartime opposition in mountain communities fit recurrent patterns of social protest evident in the antebellum period. At the root of protest lay social and economic changes imperiling their society. The development of industrial lumbering signaled a transition toward a fuller market economy. Large-scale lumbering began...

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3. The Limits of Patriotism: Early Mobilization in the Mountains

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pp. 44-60

In July 1862, during the second summer of the war, a lone recruiting officer made his way to the scattered settlements of northern Jefferson County in search of fresh soldiers. The situation was a marked contrast to the previous year, when recruiting had...

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4. The Rhetoric of Loyalty:Partisan Perspectiveson Treason

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pp. 61-98

In May 1863, the Republican newspaper of Clearfield carried a didactic episode copied from the Hollidaysburg Whig. The author intended the brief piece to illustrate the meaning of loyalty and treason for citizens of a nation torn by fratricidal conflict. The story was likely the product of the editor’s imagination, as an object lesson...

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5. Everyday Resistance in Pennsylvania’s Deserter Country

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pp. 99-116

On November 19, 1863, Colonel Hugh S. Campbell, the provost marshal for the western half of the lumber region, opened a dismaying letter from his deputy, Captain John S. McKiernan. The week before, Mc- Kiernan rode his horse into the Clearfield countryside, carrying a revolver in his pocket and a list of deserters to...

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6. ‘‘Collisions with the People’’: Federal Intervention in Deserter Country

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pp. 117-138

Since its enactment, the conscription policy was the primary cause for resistance throughout the North. While spread across the free states, draft resistance became concentrated in pockets of ‘‘deserter country,’’ most acute in the ‘‘butternut’’ region of the lower-Midwest, Wisconsin, and the mountains of...

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Epilogue: Contested Memories of the Civil War

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p. 139

In the national memory, the Civil War appears permanently fixed as a noble war that preserved the nation and ended the scourge of slavery. Most Americans today imagine the war as a tragic yet romantic conflict, fought in simpler times by fellow Americans engaged in admirable causes. The foundation of this contemporary image emerged...

Appendix: Supplemental Figures

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pp. 147-178

Notes

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pp. 179-218

Bibliography

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pp. 219-229

Index

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pp. 231-234