Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Frontispiece

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Contents

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pp. ix-x

List of Illustrations

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pp. xi-xii

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Foreword

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pp. xiii-xvi

Several years ago I spent a summer in southern California on a research fellowship. One weekend while my family was away, I decided to go camping in one of the Sierra Nevada’s famous national parks, none of which I had ever visited. I chose Sequoia National Park, which was a bit more proximate than Yosemite and, I hoped, would be a bit less crowded. Sequoia National Park is home to ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xxii

During a graduate colloquium on nineteenth- century American history at the University of Kansas, I asked the professor, Phil Paludan, whether anyone had undertaken a study of the Civil War from an environmental perspective. He said, “No—that’s what you will do.” I am forever indebted to him for that single sentence and for his subsequent support for the project and confidence in my abilities to complete it with competence, if not grace. The main title...

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INTRODUCTION: Nineteenth-Century Ideas of Nature and Their Role in Civil War Strategy

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pp. 1-23

“Egypt had its plagues and its all- consuming swarms of locusts. Beautiful tropical regions are cursed with the deadly upas tree. Delig[h]tful valleys are swept with destructive floods. But the United States are afflicted with a curse worse than all these—treason—secession.” For George W. Squire, a lieutenant in the Forty- Fourth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, secession was akin to a natural disaster laying waste to his beloved country. Three and a half...

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ONE: Hostile Territory: Union Operations along the Lower Mississippi, 1862–1863

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pp. 24-48

in 1860 the Mississippi river still fl owed largely according to its own rules. Meandering, altering its course without warning, it littered the landscape with sinewy ridges of rich, black alluvial soil, oxbow lakes, swamps, and bayous. On the eve of the Civil War, humans had yet to build the massive dam and levee systems that would hem in its waters and straighten its path. Minor incursions on its freedom—small earthen levees thrown up by...

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TWO: Broken Country: Union Campaigns at and around Vicksburg, 1863

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pp. 48-71

As winter gave way to spring in 1863, renewed energy infused the Union forces just as it did the verdant Louisiana countryside. The men were eager to leave their camps at Milliken’s Bend and De Soto Point and distance themselves from the places they associated with floods, illness, and seemingly futile hard labor. Sherman lamented that after four months of being within sight of the city, they still had not “got at Vicksburg. We have not got...

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THREE: Ravaged Ground: Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, 1864

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pp. 72-92

The Shenandoah Valley’s peaceful, pastoral reputation obscures its violent past. Powerful collisions of tectonic plates thrust the Appalachian Mountains into existence millions of years ago, then wind and water besieged the mountains’ exposed flanks of limestone and shale, separating the Alleghenies from the Blue Ridge and creating an open plain two hundred miles long and, on average, twenty miles wide. Fast- fl owing rivers further penetrated...

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FOUR: Devoured Land: Sherman’s Georgia and Carolina Campaigns, 1864–1865

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pp. 93-126

“We have devoured the land,” wrote William Tecumseh Sherman in a letter to his wife, Ellen, in June 1864. “All the people retire before us, and desolation is behind. To realize what war is one should follow our tracks.”1 Sherman was reflecting on the damage wrought by the protracted battle for control over northern Georgia between his Union forces and Confederate general Joe Johnston’s army. Neither side intended to destroy the landscape...

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CONCLUSION: Making a Desert and Calling It Peace

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pp. 127-140

in ad 84 the roman military commander and governor of Britain Gnaeus Julius Agricola determined to solidify Rome’s control over the island’s northern frontier. That year he engaged the last holdouts against Roman rule, the Scottish forces united under the chieftain Calgacus, at Mons Graupius. On the eve of battle Calgacus spoke to his warriors, rousing their ...

Notes

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pp. 141-160

Bibliography

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pp. 161-178

Index

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pp. 179-188

Further Reading

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pp. 189-189