Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-xi

Contents According to Chronology and Geography

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pp. xiii-xviii

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Introduction

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pp. xix-xxiv

Medieval Italy: Texts in Translation gathers together for the first time in one volume the primary sources in translation necessary for teaching the history of the Central and Later Middle Ages in Italy. Over the past fifty years or so, medieval Italy has...

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A Note on Dating and Currency

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pp. xxv-xxvi

In a multicultural setting such as medieval Italy, dating of documents was by no means uniform. A number of regions of Christian Italy began the new year on the feast of the Annunciation with the result that the year was not ushered in until...

Abbreviations

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p. xxvii

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1: The Countryside and Its Dependencies

The traditional view of a ‘‘conquest’’ of the contado (the land surrounding a city, its hinterland) by the developing urban centers of medieval Italy has recently been questioned by historians who wish to underline the strong ties that bound them together: after all...

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1. Land Leasing and Legal Status in Southern Italy: Three Texts (964–86) translated from Latin by Valerie Ramseyer

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pp. 3-6

...In the name of the Lord, in the thirty-sixth year of the reign of our lord the glorious prince Pandolfus and the first year of his reign over the Principality of Salerno, and in the fifth year of the reign of his son lord Pandolfus, in the month of April, in the seventh year of the indiction. I, Martin, priest and abbot of the church...

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2. Land, Money, and Grain: Two Customary Leases in the Diocese of Florence (1073, 1115) translated from Latin by George Dameron

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pp. 7-9

...In the name of the Lord God, Amen. In the year dating from the Incarnation of our Lord, 1073, in the month of July, tenth indiction; done under auspicious circumstances. We, Abbot Raineri and Presbyter Inghizo of the monastery of San...

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3. A Bequest of Town and Countryside Properties in Eboli (1152) translated from Latin by David Routt

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pp. 10-11

In the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity in the year from the incarnation of our lord and savior Jesus Christ 1152 and in the twenty-second year of the reign of our lord Roger, the most glorious king of Sicily and Italy, and in the second...

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4. Sharecropping in the Sienese Contado: Three Texts (1232, 1257, 1293) translated from Latin by David Routt

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pp. 12-15

...I, Bonifacio di Niccolo` , by notice of contract of hiring, give, concede, and lease to you, Uguccione di Renaldo, my vineyard and land lying near the oven of Giovanni Grassi, which vineyard was Piero di Cresta’s, from now for five years....

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5. Bonvesin della Riva on Milan and Its Contado (1288) translated from Latin by Frances Andrews

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pp. 16-19

...Rubric 12. What can now be said of the high number of the other inhabitants of Milan and its contado?2 Silence. He who can, let him count them. But please excuse me if I am not silent on this: since, according to my long calculations, confirmed...

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6. Giovanni Villani on Food Shortages and Famine in Central Italy (1329–30, 1347–48) translated from Italian by Katherine L. Jansen

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pp. 20-24

In these times, on 4 February [1329], Messer Guiglielmo d’Eboli, a baron of King Robert of Naples, was [ruling] Rome as senator, with 300 knights as guards of the...

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7. A Rebellion in Firenzuola (1402) translated from Latin by Samuel K. Cohn

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pp. 25-30

...Traitors and rebels against the Magnificent and Glorious People and Commune of Florence, men of evil habits, associations, life, and reputation . . . the above-stated in this inquest, each of them, and many others....

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2: Spheres and Structures of Power: Ecclesiastical and Secular

Throughout the medieval west, a major theme for historians is the shifting relationship of secular and sacred power and the institutions formed to express that power: here, the Church (both secular and regular), the Crown, and rural and urban lordships. Churches

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8. The Bishopric of Florence and the Foundation of San Miniato al Monte (1013) translated from Latin by George Dameron

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pp. 33-36

In the name of God, Amen. In the year of the Incarnation of our Lord, 1013, when Henry [II] was Emperor Augustus of the Romans, on the fifth day before the...

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9. Proprietary Religious Houses in the Diocese of Salerno (1047–92) translated from Latin by Valerie Ramseyer

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pp. 37-41

September 1092 In the name of God Eternal and our Savior Jesus Christ, in the 1092nd year since the incarnation, in the time of our lord the glorious duke Roger [Borsa], in the month of September, in the first year of the indiction. Before me John a judge...

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10. The Commune and Bishop of Florence Forbid the Alienation of Ecclesiastical Property (1159) translated from Latin by George Dameron

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p. 42

There exists a certain public document that includes a number of ordinances passed by the Commune and people of Florence, which includes the following: if anyone...

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11. Episcopal Lordship: Scenes from the Life of Ubaldo da Gubbio (ca. 1160) translated from Latin by Maureen Miller

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pp. 43-46

A short time later, Bishop Stefano of blessed memory died, leaving widowed the see of Gubbio—the city, namely, of that man of God Ubaldo. When the clergy of the city, however, could not come to agreement on the election of a new bishop...

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12. Federigo Visconti’s Pastoral Visitation to Sardinia (1263) translated from Latin by William North

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pp. 47-50

1. In the year of the Lord’s Incarnation 1264 [1263], in the sixth year of our consecration, we, Federigo, archbishop of the holy church of Pisa by the grace of God and...

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13. Origins of the Commune of Cremona: Three Texts (996–1097) translated from Latin by Edward Coleman

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pp. 51-54

1. Grant of Otto III to the Citizens of Cremona (996, May 22, Rome) In the name of the holy and indivisible Trinity, Otto [III] by divine favor emperor of the Romans. Be it known to all faithful men of God’s church and to all our own loyal men, present and future, [that], through the petition of our loyal chancellor...

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14. Mechanisms of Communal Government: Five Texts (1143–84) translated from Latin by Frances Andrews

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pp. 55-60

I, Ranuccio of Staggia, Bernardino and Guazolino my sons, Ottaviano and Rustico Soarzi bind as a pledge to you, Rainerio, bishop of the church of Santa Maria of Siena and to all the Sienese people, the castle called ‘‘di Strove,’’ on...

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15. Empire and Cities in the Late Twelfth Century: The Peace of Constance and Its Aftermath: Two Texts (1183, 1216) translated from Latin by Frances Andrews

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pp. 61-64

1. The Peace of Constance (1183) In the name of the holy and undivided Trinity Frederick, by divine grace Emperor of the Romans, Augustus, and Henry VI his son, King of the Romans, Augustus, is accustomed to show grace and favor and...

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16. Twelfth-Century Administration of Corleone: Two Texts (1182, 1178–83) translated from Arabic by Alex Metcalfe

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pp. 65-70

1. Boundary Description of Corleone (1182) The great boundary of Qurullu¯n (modern Corleone) begins from the head of the river Shantaghnı¯ from below ku¯dyat al-h. ina¯sh (‘‘the hill of the Translated from...

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17. Giovanni Villani on the Ascent of the Popolo in Florence (1250, 1293) translated from Italian by Katherine L. Jansen

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pp. 71-73

1. Il Primo Popolo, 1250 [20 October 1250] . . . There was a great commotion among the Florentines because the Ghibellines who were ruling the area were crushing the people with intolerable...

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18. The Standard Bearer of Lucca appeals to Local Patriotism (1397) translated from Latin by Christine Meek

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pp. 74-76

In the name of God amen. In the year of the Lord 1397, the fifth indiction, the eighth day of June. The Major and General Council of the People and Commune of Lucca summoned by the sound of the bell and the voice of the public crier,...

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3: The Commercial Revolution

This section takes its title from Robert Lopez’s Commercial Revolution, published in 1971, which argued that the period beginning in the eleventh century and ending with the Black Death of 1348 wrought changes to the European economy comparable to those brought...

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19. A Genoese Apprenticeship Contract (1221) translated from Latin by Katherine L. Jansen

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pp. 79-80

I, Giovanni di Cogorno, for the next fifteen years contract to you master Bartholomeo, notary, my son Enrichetto to stay with you for the purpose of assisting you, and for learning your trade and lessons, with the result that he will learn...

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20. Guild Regulations for the Oil Vendors and Grocers of Florence (1318) translated from Italian by Katherine L. Jansen

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pp. 81-86

In the name of God amen. In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit amen. For the honor and reverence [due to] almighty God and the Blessed Mary, always a Virgin, and the...

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21. The Venetian Mint After the Black Death: Three Texts (1353) translated from Latin by Alan Stahl

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pp. 87-89

Three Proposals from the Council of Forty on Debasing the Coinage and Raising Wages 1. 8 April 1353, Council of Forty, Venice Proposal of Michele Duodo and Donato Onoradi...

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22. State-Run Shipping in Venice (1398) translated from Latin by Eleanor A. Congdon

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pp. 90-91

Item: Because it is good to try to win the good will of the lord of Malaga [Sultan Muhammad VII of Granada], let it be ordained that the captain of the said galleys shall, if it should appear to be proper, go with the said galleys to Malaga...

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23. International Networks in the Mediterranean (1400) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon

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p. 92

Yesterday there came a brigantine [a two-masted round-bellied cargo vessel] directly from the Levant with news that Timur has entered into Syria with a great multitude of warriors. All the Venetian merchants who were in Syria have fled to...

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24. Transportation of Commodities (1401) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon

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p. 93

The ship captained by Marcho de Verzoni left here and went to Segna [on the Dalmatian coast] to load a cargo of wood, and from there carried it to Ibiza from where...

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25. Two Cargo Manifests (1400, 1399) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon

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pp. 94-97

1. Cargo of the Two Galleys of Romania Commanded by Ser Piero Zuriani, Which Arrived in Venice 23 January...

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26. A Run on a Bank (1400) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon

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pp. 98-99

Ser Piero became very ill with the pestilence late Monday evening [27 September 1400] and on the 30th a rumor spread from envy that he was dead and that he had wished to petition other banks [to honor his accounts]. . . . I heard that many...

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27. Debt Remission (1400) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon

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p. 100

You say, moreover, that you have received from Giovanni di Ser Nigi 20 lire worth of grossi and another 15 lire worth of grossi from Domenico d’ Andrea which they...

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28. Trade and Diplomacy (1400) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon

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pp. 101-101

I think that you ought to know from my letters that . . . I came here with the Venetian consul. He was appointed for two years. We have been here for nine months now...

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29. Protectionist Legislation (1400) translated from Spanish by Eleanor A. Congdon

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pp. 102-103

The lord king, just as his predecessors the kings of Aragon had done, for the good will of Florentines, Lucchese, Sienese, and other Tuscans and all Lombards, and...

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30. Usury: Six Texts (1161–1419) translated from Latin by Lawrin Armstrong

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pp. 104-110

1. Decree of the Second Council of Lyons (1274) Prohibiting the Christian Burial of Usurers Who Fail to Make Restitution Even if manifest usurers have made provision in their testaments for the restitution of specific...

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4: Violence, Warfare, and Peace

As many of the sources in this section demonstrate, violence was a recurrent reality of medieval lives, devastating communities large and small, disrupting all aspects of economic, cultural, political, and social life. It took various forms: at one end were major military...

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31. The Destruction of the Monastery of San Vincenzo al Volturno (mid-twelfth century) translated from Latin by G. A. Loud

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pp. 113-116

When the evil race of the Agarenes1 had wasted other parts of these lands through plunder, fire, and destruction, at length this profane crowd of unbelievers, whose hands are against all, than whom no beast is more fierce, and who were not...

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32. The Genoese Capture of Almerı´a (1147) translated from Latin by G. A. Loud

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pp. 117-121

When the evil race of the Agarenes1 had wasted other parts of these lands through plunder, fire, and destruction, at length this profane crowd of unbelievers, whose hands are against all, than whom no beast is more fierce, and who were not...

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33. Ibn al-Athır on Sicilian Muslims Under Christian Rule: The Complete Treatment of History (twelfth century) translated from Arabic by Joshua Birk

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pp. 122-123

4 July 1144–23 June 1145 It is said that the lord of the island of Sicily [Roger II] dispatched raiding ships to Tripoli...

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34. Giovanni Codagnello on Factional Strife in Piacenza (1232–35) translated from Latin by William North

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pp. 124-126

In February of the year 1090, a great conflict arose between the popolo and the knights of Piacenza on the occasion of a trial by combat which at that time used to...

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35. Giovanni Villani on the Origins of the Guelfs and Ghibellines in Florence (ca. 1300) translated from Italian by Katherine L. Jansen

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pp. 127-130

In the year of Christ 1215, when Gherardo Orlandi was podesta` in Florence, one Bondelmonte dei Bondelmonti, a noble citizen of Florence, promised to marry a young woman of the house of the Amidei family, honorable and notable...

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36. Vendetta in Fourteenth-Century Siena (1321–46) translated from Latin by Trevor Dean

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pp. 131-134

[1321] Francesco, called ‘‘friar,’’ the son of Messer Vanni Sinibaldi, going home to the Salimbeni palace on Tuesday evening 29 December . . . , was attacked by...

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37. Charles of Anjou on the Battle of Tagliacozzo (1268) introduced by Caroline Bruzelius; translated from Latin by Sean Gilsdorf

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pp. 135-137

To the most holy father in Christ and his lord, Lord Clement [IV], by divine providence supreme pontiff of the most holy Roman and universal Church; Charles, by...

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38. Giovanni Regina on Angevin Military Success Against the Empire (1328) translated from Latin by Samantha Kelly

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pp. 138-141

Preserve your people, O Lord: Psalm [27:9]. We are all gathered here today to pray to the Lord God that he preserve the duke and his army who, as will be shown below, are the people of God. The procession and sung mass, and the preaching . ....

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39. Matteo Villani on Peace and the Common Good (fourteenth century) translated from Italian by William Caferro

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pp. 142-143

Naturally opposite and contrary things, once brought together, demonstrate all the more their differences. We speak of this presently, because of the failed peace between....

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40. A Mercenary Soldier: John Hawkwood (1369) translated from Italian by William Caferro

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pp. 144-145

In the said year of 1369, when Giovanni Malatacca, captain of the Florentine forces, was besieging San Miniato, John Hawkwood [Giovanni Acuto] left Lombardy...

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41. Alliance in Exile Between the Radical Ciompi and Magnates Against the Florentine Guild Republic (1379) translated from Latin by Samuel K. Cohn

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pp. 146-148

Lord Lapo, son of Lapo of Castiglionchio from the parish of San Remigio Lord Giovanni di Pocciano di Bettolo de Coppoli of Perugia Benedetto di Simone de Pucci from the parish of San Iacopo in Fossi Aduaordo di Bartolommeo de Pulci from the parish of San Piero Scheraggio Bernardo di...

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42. Lordships and City-State Rivalry in Lombardy and the Veneto (1390–1405) translated from Italian by John E. Law

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pp. 149-158

Andrea di Miari and Bonaccorso his brother and Giangregorio da Bolzano and Bolzano de’ Bolzano, and many others, numbering over sixty, gathered in the suburb of Campitello after one o’clock, seized the bridge to the market gate of Belluno...

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43. Maritime Warfare and Piracy: Three Texts on Genoa and Venice (1380–1403) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon, Michele Pietro Ghezzo, John R. Melville-Jones, and Andrea Rizzi

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pp. 159-162

On 13 July 1380, . . . the [Genoese] galleys reached 49 in number, including a few galedoli [smaller lightweight galleys usually used for trade], and every day appeared...

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5: Law and Order

Among the many social and intellectual changes in which Italy played a leading role, perhaps the most profound was the development of legal theory and practice—in particular, the study and reapplication of the law of the late Roman Empire, as reorganized and...

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44. Property Rights and the Legal System in Salerno (1044) translated from Latin by Valerie Ramseyer

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pp. 165-166

In the name of the Lord, in the twenty-sixth year of the reign of our lord Prince Guaimarius [IV] over the Principality of Salerno, and the sixth year of his reign over...

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45. Roman Law and Legal Studies: Three Texts (ca. 1124–66) translated from Latin by Sean Gilsdorf

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pp. 167-172

1. Anonymous, Letter to Abbot B[ernard III] of Saint-Victor, Marseille (1124/27) Most longed-for Father, Your Clemency should know that I previously was granted leave by...

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46. Odofredus Announces His Course on Roman Law at Bologna (ca. 1230) translated from Latin by M. Miche`le Mulchahey

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pp. 173-174

If you please, I shall begin with the Old Digest on the eighth day after the feast of St Michael [29 September] or thereabouts and shall finish it completely, through both ordinary lectures [offered during normal morning class hours]...

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47. The Laws of King Roger II (ca. 1140s) translated from Latin by G. A. Loud

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pp. 175-186

I. About the Interpretation of Laws We order that the laws newly promulgated by our majesty, mitigating through piety excessive harshness and thus encouraging benevolent rule, and elucidating...

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48. A Peace Contract (1274) translated from Latin by Katherine L. Jansen

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pp. 187-188

Peace Made Between Rinaldo Dominichi and His Sons and Tuccio de Vitiana Made and Given. Likewise, on the same day [11 September 1274] and enacted in the parish of Antella [about 3 miles southeast of Florence] with the witnesses Lord Bonamente...

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49. Regulating Consumption and Ritual Behavior: Four Texts (1289–1343) translated from Latin by Catherine Kovesi Killerby

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pp. 189-195

It is prohibited for anyone to bring, or to send, or to have brought on their behalf, or through any other way, tricks, or means, to any betrothal ceremony, or...

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50. Regulation of Brothels in Florence: Two Texts (thirteenth century and 1346) translated from Latin by Lynn Marie Laufenberg

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pp. 196-198

1. The Thirteenth-Century Law Concerning not maintaining brothels and prostitutes, and concerning brothel-operators and pimps, and not selling women, and the penalties for these things...

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51. The Long Arm of the Florentine Law: Two Texts (1343, 1345) translated from Latin by Lynn Marie Laufenberg

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pp. 199-200

1. Sentence Issued by the podesta` (1343) [We condemn] . . . Lapa, widow of Pietro; Diana, widow of Bartolo di Lapo; Bertina, daughter of the deceased Conte di Lippo; Pisa, wife of Piero di Venco; Lapa...

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52. Bartolus of Sassoferrato on the Making of Citizens (fourteenth century) translated from Latin by Julius Kirshner and Osvaldo Cavallar

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pp. 201-202

The case is this: someone is made a citizen of a city by a statute or an enactment. The question is whether this person is truly or improperly called a citizen? Regarding...

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53. A Trial for Witchcraft at Todi (1428) translated from Latin by Augustine Thompson, O.P.

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pp. 203-215

The Process Against Matteuccia Francisci of the Village of Ripabianca, Charged with Witchcraft Todi, 20 March 1428.1 I. In the Name...

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54. A Question of Identity in Venetian Crete (1438) translated from Latin by Sally McKee

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pp. 216-222

March , 1438 In the presence of the magnificent lord Mafeo Donado, honorable duke and captain of Crete, and his council, the nobleman ser Marco Abramo, prosecutor of the commune, has come on his own to intervene in the following matter, since the...

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6: The Built Environment

By the central Middle Ages what were once considered public works projects devolved into the hands of local rulers and private citizens, even those concerning the basic right to water...

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55. Incastellamento: Two Texts from Verona (906, 923) translated from Latin by Maureen Miller

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pp. 225-227

1. Diploma of King Berengario, Verona (24 August 906) In the name of the eternal Lord God. King Berengario. Let the devoted astuteness of all the faithful of the holy church of God and our own, present and future...

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56. A Bath in Southwest Italy (1047) translated from Latin by Jill Caskey

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pp. 228-229

Our Orso [bishop of Minori] conducted water to the episcopal palace and also made a public bath in his gardens, as we read in a parchment of 5 November, first indiction, sixth year of the Duke Mansone after the reacquisition,1 that we [the sixteenth...

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57. Bishop Daibert’s Order on the Height of Towers in Pisa (1090) translated from Latin by Patricia Skinner

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pp. 230-233

In the name of our lord and savior Jesus Christ, I Daibertus, by divine favor the unworthy bishop of the Pisans, having with me as companions the energetic and...

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58. Ibn Jubayr’s Account of Messina and Palermo (1184–85) translated from Arabic by Alex Metcalfe, with additional texts by Joshua Birk

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pp. 234-240

Recollection of the city of Messina on the island of Sicily (may God almighty return it!): this city is inundated with infidel merchants and a destination for ships from all quarters with many parties there for its low prices. No Muslim has settled...

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59. The Baptistry of Parma: Fourteen Texts (1196–1321) translated from Latin by Areli Marina

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pp. 241-246

I. Construction History 1. Inscription on the lintel of the baptistry’s northern portal, facing the piazza In the year...

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60. Charles of Anjou on the Foundation of a Cistercian Monastery near Scurcola (Abruzzo, 1274) introduced by Caroline Bruzelius; translated from Latin by Sean Gilsdorf

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pp. 247-248

(Charles I, etc.) Written to the venerable abbot of the monastery of Casanova1 or his representative. Out of reverence for the Supreme Father, from whom we received the governance...

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61. Foundation of a French Monastery in Abruzzo: Santa Maria della Vittoria (1277) introduced by Caroline Bruzelius; translated from Latin by Sean Gilsdorf

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pp. 249-253

The generosity of princes, renowned among men, which repays followers for their service with suitable rewards, enjoys even greater distinction when everyone...

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62. A Contract for Stonework for the Monastery of Santa Maria di Realvalle (near Naples, 1279) introduced by Caroline Bruzelius; translated from Latin by Sean Gilsdorf

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pp. 254-257

Charles I, etc. Written to his faithful men, Peter Castaldus de Castromaris and Stephen of Donfront, overseers of expenses for work on the monastery of Santa Maria di Realvalle, etc. We wish...

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63. Jewish and Greek Patronage in Apulia: Two Texts (1313/14, 1372/73) translated from Hebrew and Greek by Linda Safran

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pp. 258-260

...This window was made in the year ‘‘Hadasah,’’ a gift of the people by the hand of Moses of Trywys....

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64. Ordering the Piazza del Campo of Siena (1309) translated from Italian by Fabrizio Nevola

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pp. 261-264

(III.37) That in every house that is built around the Campo (field) of the market, the windows should be designed with columns We also rule and order that if any house or palace should be built on the Campo market...

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65. On the City Walls and Built Environment of Pavia (1330) translated from Latin by Victoria Morse and William North

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pp. 265-268

History of the walls This is the city which, by divine power, the Lombards preserved and selected as the capital and treasury of their kingdom, after they had destroyed and depopulated...

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7: Rome, the Papacy, and Papal Politics

Since the advent of Christianity, the history of Rome has been bound up with the history of the papacy. First-century witnesses attest Peter’s presence in the capital and his leadership of the Christian community in Rome. By the third century, Peter was honored as

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66. Matilda of Canossa, Papal Patron: Two Texts (eleventh century) translated from Latin by William North

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pp. 271-273

After providing the countess with salutary advice and divine commands, [Gregory VII] said farewell and set off for Rome [in 1077]. The people of Rome went out...

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67. The Marvels of Rome (1143) translated from Latin by Mary Stroll

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pp. 274-277

I. In the time of the emperor, Octavian, the senators, seeing him of such great beauty that no one was able to look into his eyes, and of so much good fortune and...

68. Arnald of Brescia at Rome (ca. 1162–66) translated from Latin by Thomas Carson

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pp. 278-280

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69. Innocent III to the Hospital of Santo Spirito in Sassia (1208) translated from Latin by Brenda Bolton

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pp. 281-282

To his beloved Sons the Rector and Brothers of the Hospital of Santo Spirito in Saxia granting indulgences and privileges to them. To commemorate the salutary wedding which at the conversion of a sinner is duly celebrated between the spirit of Man and the grace of the Creator, from which good...

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70. A Dispute with Pope Innocent III over Customary Rights in Alatri (1212) translated from Latin by Brenda Bolton

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pp. 283-285

In the name of the Lord, Amen. Lord Lando de Montelongo was sworn and when questioned said that the Lord Pope Innocent had freely given the forest of Eici to the monastery of Saint Bartholomew, which that monastery stated belonged...

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71. Piero della Vigna’s Invective Against the Pope (mid-thirteenth century) translated from Latin by Emily O’Brien

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pp. 286-290

To all the prelates [of the church], so that they might restrain the pope from his unlawful impulses. When the world was first created, the prudent and unutterable foresight of God . . . placed...

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72. The Jubilee Year of 1300: Three Texts (1300) translated from Latin by Katherine L. Jansen and John Petruccione

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pp. 291-294

Boniface, Bishop, Servant of the Servants of God. For the certainty of the present and the memory of the future. The trustworthy tradition of our elders affirms that great remissions and indulgences for...

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73. Cola di Rienzo and Fourteenth-Century Rome: Twelve Texts (fourteenth century) translated from Italian and Latin by Amanda Collins and John Wright

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pp. 295-300

1. On Cola di Rienzo’s Election [May 1347] The citizens of the city of Rome were in a great state of internal discord, because people from other provinces were refusing to visit Rome, due to...

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74. The Pacification of the Patrimony of St. Peter (1355–59) translated from Italian by John Wright

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pp. 301-308

Don Gilio Conchese (Gil Albornoz), having recovered Narni and Amelia, moves against the Malatesti in the March, where Galeotto Malatesta surrenders to him Once he had finished organizing the Patrimony, the legate stayed in Orvieto for a while...

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8: Disease and Medical Practice

During the Middle Ages, western medicine developed in no small part through contact with the texts of Muslim scholars such as Avicenna (Ibn Sina, d. 1037) and Averro¨es (Ibn Rushd, d. 1198). To this end, two uniquely Italian contributions were the integration...

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75. Medicine in Southern Italy: Six Texts (twelfth–fourteenth centuries) translated from Latin by Monica H. Green

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pp. 311-325

...Constantine the African was a monk of this same monastery [Montecassino]. He was fully learned in all philosophical studies, a master of East and West, a new and shining Hippocrates. He left Carthage [Tunis], whence he originated, and sought...

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76. Matteo Villani on Plague and Malaria (1357–58) translated from Italian by Samuel K. Cohn

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pp. 326-327

Although the arm of God still stretched out over the world of sinners, they had not corrected or mended their ways, despite his terrible judgment over the entire...

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77. The Curriculum in Arts and Medicine at Bologna (early fifteenth century) translated from Latin by M. Miche`le Mulchahey

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pp. 328-330

Famed for legal studies, the studium at Bologna also taught the arts and medicine, as the syllabus below clearly indicates. The notable absence in the curriculum of many Italian universities was theology: Queen of Sciences and the dominant faculty at the University...

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78. Dissection at Bologna (early fifteenth century) translated from Latin by M. Miche`le Mulchahey

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pp. 331-332

Since the performing of dissection pertains to and enhances the work and progress of scholars, and quarrels and rumors have often arisen over the search...

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79. Surgery at Bologna (1405) translated from Latin by M. Miche`le Mulchahey

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p. 333

Further, the syndics decreed that the doctors lecturing on surgery ought to lecture in the following way, namely, that every year, when the university opens...

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9: Varieties of Religious Experience: The Christian Tradition

The length and complexity of the texts included in this section reflect the central importance of the Latin Christian tradition to religious life in medieval Italy, whose small Jewish, Greek, and Muslim communities are documented elsewhere in this volume...

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80. The Pataria: Andrea da Strumi’s Passion of Arialdo (late eleventh century) translated from Latin by William North

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pp. 337-350

[Prologue] Venerable father Rudolf, you ordered me to write down the passion of the blessed martyr Arialdo. . . . Whoever shall read this life should know that in it I have said absolutely nothing that I have not learned from the accounts...

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81. Miracles of Bishop Giovanni Cacciafronte of Vicenza (1226) translated from Latin by Patricia Skinner

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pp. 351-356

January 1224, Vicenza Here are the attestations and inquisitions made by master Jordan, by the grace of God bishop of Padua, and brother Joachim the prior of Santa...

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82. Life of Raymond ‘‘the Palmer’’ of Piacenza (1212) translated from Latin by Kenneth Baxter Wolf

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pp. 357-376

The Author’s Preface and the Dedication of the Work . . . I will draw only upon those things to which I or you were witnesses, or those things witnessed by others who have sworn to their veracity with a hand on the sacred...

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83. Life of Umiliana de’ Cerchi (1246) translated from Latin by Anne M. Schuchman

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pp. 377-384

...A lady by the name of Umiliana, daughter of Olivierio Cerchi, a Florentine, was married by her parents when she was sixteen. And as if filled with God, one month after...

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84. Franco Sacchetti on ‘‘Modern Saints’’ (ca. 1365) translated from Italian by Catherine Lawless

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pp. 385-389

Dearest friend.The aforementioned letter began around the time of the year 1365, when, as is believed, Pope Urban V and Charles, king of Bohemia, emperor, secretly discussed some things together in Avignon, so that they could direct...

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85. The Humiliati: Five Texts (1184–thirteenth century) translated from Latin by Frances Andrews

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pp. 390-392

1. The Laon Chronicle Description (early thirteenth century) In the year of grace 1178 [1179] . . . At that time there were certain citizens of Lombard towns who lived at home with their families, chose a distinctive form of religious life, refrained from lies, oaths, and law suits, were satisfied with plain clothing...

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86. Albertanus of Brescia: Sermon to a Confraternity (1250) introduced by James M. Powell; translated from Latin by Gregory W. Ahlquist

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pp. 393-399

Sermon Delivered on Illumination on Both Spiritual and Bodily Refreshment and What Is Necessary for Refreshment Pray to God, brothers, that by the ministry of his holiness, through me, his useless and unworthy...

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87. The Confraternity of the Misericordia Maggiore in Bergamo: Three Texts (1282–1362) translated from Latin by Roisin Cossar

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pp. 400-404

In the name of God, amen. These are the poor and needy of the neighborhoods and city and burgs of Bergamo provided by the men named below; that is, two men per neighborhood, who were elected by the minister and cellarer of this...

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88. Civic Veneration of the Saints at Siena: Six Texts (1326–39) translated from Latin by Diana Webb

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pp. 405-410

It is submitted in the presence of you, the Nine Lords Governors and Defenders of the commune and people of the city of Siena, and requested with the utmost urgency...

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89. Opicino de Canistris: Confessions of a Parish Priest (1336) translated from Latin by Victoria Morse

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pp. 411-420

....1296 24 March Conception in iniquity from a legitimate marriage.2 December 24 Birth in sin at Lomello. 1297 1 January Circumcision...

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10: Marriage, Family, and Children

The history of Italy, in both legend and fact, is often told through the stories of families: from the Caesars of ancient Rome, to the Medici of Renaissance Florence, to the Sicilian mafia of Godfather fame. The family is a fundamental social unit the study of which...

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90. Family and Marriage in Lombard Salerno: Three Texts (1008–78) translated from Latin by Valerie Ramseyer

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pp. 422-427

In the name of the Lord, in the twentieth year of the reign of our lord the glorious prince Guaimarius [III], in the month of September, in the seventh year of the...

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91. Geoffrey Malaterra on the Marriage of Matilda and Raymond of Toulouse: Two Texts (ca. 1080) translated from Latin by G. A. Loud

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pp. 428-431

Meanwhile, news of the reputation for valor of Count Roger of the Sicilians came to the celebrated Count Raymond of Provence [later count of Toulouse]. Hearing of this, he [Raymond] sent envoys of a rank suitable for such an important...

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92. Frederick II’s Legislation on Adultery and Prostitution (1231) translated from Latin by James M. Powell

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pp. 432-433

How adulteries should be corrected [King William] The complaints of some of the prelates of our kingdom have informed our majesty...

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93. The Customs of Salerno on Dowries (1251) translated from Latin by Joanna Drell

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pp. 434-435

These are the customs of the city of Salerno. Just as laws have been made, are made, and will be made inviolable forever, likewise, customs are inviolable . . . I. The Granting of the Dowry The granting of dowry in the city of Salerno in ancient times was given in the princely currency...

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94. Disputed Marriage in Bologna (ca. late thirteenth century) translated from Latin by Lynn Marie Laufenberg

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pp. 436-437

Question 39: It is established that the existence of a marriage cannot be proved by a smaller number of witnesses than seven. Is it valid even if it is done to the contrary? The inquiry rests with the podesta etc. . ....

95. Trees of Consanguinity and Affinity (ca. 1310–30) introduced by Robert Gibbs

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pp. 438-440

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96. Marriage, Family, and Children in the Datini Family: Nine Texts (1375–1401) translated from Italian by Eleanor A. Congdon

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pp. 441-445

Francesco! Mona Piera and I, Niccolozzo Ser Naldo di Prato, give you greetings and wish that this letter shall find you well and cheerful, and your dear brother as well. On the...

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97. Marriage, Dowry, and Remarriage in the Sassetti Household (1384–97) translated from Italian by Isabelle Chabot

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pp. 446-450

...Memory: that we married Lena, daughter of the late Bernardo our brother, with the mediation of Andrea, son of messer Francesco Salviati, and Filippo, son of the...

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98. Family and Children in the Libro di Ricordi of Luca da Panzano (1425–46) translated from Italian by Anthony Molho

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pp. 451-456

took my wife. I recall that on 23 September 14251 I, Luca, took as my wife Lucrezia, daughter of the late Salvadore di Biondi del Caccia, and I must have as dowry for the said Lucrezia one...

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11: Education and Erudition

During the centuries of dislocation and instability that followed the Roman Empire’s collapse, the principal bastions of literate and literary culture were ecclesiastical institutions...

I. LOCAL SCHOOLS ANDELEMENTARY EDUCATION

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p. 459

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99. GIOVANNI VILLANI ON THE SCHOOLS OFFLORENCE (late 1330s)

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p. 459

We find that there are from eight to ten thousand boys and girls learning to read. Of boys studying abbaco [practical mathematics] and arithmetic, there are from 1,000...

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100. SCHOOLING FOR A GIRL (1399, 1402)

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p. 460

Today, 31 October 1399, I gave to my Ginevra one florin’s worth of copper for her to give to Mona Mattea, who teaches her to read at Santa Maria Novella. Today, 20...

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101. GRAMMAR SCHOOLTWO TEXTS (1360s, 1406)

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p. 461

Today, 31 October 1399, I gave to my Ginevra one florin’s worth of copper for her to give to Mona Mattea, who teaches her to read at Santa Maria Novella. Today, 20...

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102. LEARNING TO READ: LA TAVOLA

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p. 462

Boys and girls in Italy first learned to read Latin and to parse basic abbreviations by means of ‘‘la tavola,’’ the tablet, or what in English is known as a hornbook. This was a small wooden...

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103. LEARNING TO LATINIZE: DONADELLO

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p. 463

...What part of speech is it? A noun. Why is it a noun?. Because it signifies a substance, or an individual or common quality, and exhibits case. How many qualities do nouns have? Five: species, gender, number, figure, case. What is one sort...

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104. LEARNING TO RECKON: LEONARDOFIBONACCI’S BOOK OF ABBACO (1202; revised 1228)

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p. 464

PROBLEM 1 (The lion that was in a pit). A pit was 50 hand’s breadths in depth. A lion climbed up the pit 1/7 of a hand’s breadth and fell back 1/9 of a hand’s...

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II. THE UNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNA

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p. 466

The universitates or universities of medieval Europe were essentially guilds of masters and students who had organized themselves for purposes of study. The relations between the universities and the cities in which they operated were often strained, as the towns....

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105. UNIVERSITAS: A PAPAL BULL IN FAVOR OF THEUNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNA (1220)

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pp. 466-468

Having understood from the report of our venerable brother the Bishop of Ostia the devotion that you all bear toward the Roman Church, we are eager to procure those things that pertain to your salvation and honor, and also recognize that...

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106. DUTIES OF THE RECTORS OF THEUNIVERSITATES AT BOLOGNA (1317–47)

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pp. 469-471

Putting the honor of charity into action, we have decreed that the rector of one university shall accompany the newly elected rector of the other university to his house...

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107. RULES GOVERNING BOOKSELLERS ATBOLOGNA (FROM STATUTES OF THE JURISTS,1317–47)

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pp. 472-473

We have decreed that each year on a day selected by the syndics there shall be chosen by the rectors and councilors from the bosom of our university six good men, clear-sighted and wise, who bear the marks of clerical orders and of whom...

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III. ROYAL EDUCATION

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p. 474

Among scholars Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1194–1250) has been a controversial figure; however, no-one has denied his passion for hunting, falconry in particular. Frederick’s royal household included a large contingent of royal falconers, and he built...

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108. FREDERICK II: ON THE ART OF HUNTINGWITH BIRDS (ca. 1248)

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pp. 474-479

We had proposed for a long time to present our theories in a work such as this, but deferred the task for nearly thirty years because we felt our insufficient experience and need of continued preparation. However, as time passed and we heard no report that any other writer had anticipated us and donated to the world...

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109. A GRADUATION SERMON OF ROBERT OFANJOU, KING OF NAPLES (fourteenth century)

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pp. 480-484

A Royal Sermon for the Graduation of Lord Bartholomew, Count of Salerno and Royal Councillor, in Canon Law If you seek wisdom like silver and search for it like treasure, then you will understand the fear of the Lord and find the knowledge of God (Proverbs 2 [:4–5]). These words...

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12: Social Memory, History, Commemoration

Recent scholarship has suggested that history and memory are not the distinct categories that we have traditionally believed them to be. That is, theorists of ‘‘social memory’’ argue that the memory of the past—be it individual or collective—is conditioned...

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110. A Bilingual Jewish Tombstone Inscription in Oria (eighth century) translated from Hebrew and Latin by Linda Safran

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pp. 487-489

...Here lies a prudent woman, ready in all the precepts of the faith. May she find the benevolent face of God upon the reawakening; who can count [the progeny of Jacob...

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111. Composite Chronicles from Bari (ca. 1000–1117) translated from Latin by Tehmina Goskar and Patricia Skinner

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pp. 490-500

LP987—Sergius the protospatharius was killed by the Baresi on 15 February and Adralistus by Nicholas the judge on 15 August. There was a solar eclipse. AB987—XV indiction. Sergius the protospatharius was killed by the Baresi. And Adralistus was...

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112. Will of Docibilis I of Gaeta (906) translated from Latin by Patricia Skinner

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pp. 501-505

In the name of our lord Jesus Christ, in the 28th year of the reign of our lords Leo and Alexander the purple-born, crowned by God magnificent and serene emperors, in the month of February in the 9th indiction...

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113. Foundation of a Monastery in Byzantine Calabria (1053/4) translated from Greek and Italian by Adele Cilento and David Routt

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pp. 506-507

...In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. The above-written Cirillo, spatharocandidatos and domestikosmarking with his own name and by his...

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114. The Scroll or Genealogy of Ahimaaz ben Paltiel : Jewish Learning, Myth, and Ideals in an Uncertain Salentine World (1054) translated from Hebrew by J. H. Chajes and Kenneth Stow

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pp. 508-513

From there [Gaeta], Aaron went in strides to Oria. There he found tents, embedded as rivers, and as trees planted and flourishing on waters. There were schools of learning and...

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115. Henry of Rimini’s Paean to Venice (ca. 1300) translated from Latin by John E. Law

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pp. 514-516

Among all the states which are to be found today among Christian people, that of the Venetians appears to come closest to the ‘‘mixed constitution.’’ For in it, around four hundred are admitted to the public councils from the nobility and...

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116. Four Bolognese Wills (1337) translated from Latin by Shona Kelly Wray

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pp. 517-520

1. A Butcher’s Will 1 February, 1337. Vilano di Bonaventura, a butcher of the parish of San Giuseppe, by the grace of Christ, healthy in mind and senses, but sick in body, with this...

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117. Chronicle of Parthenope (Naples, fourteenth century) translated from Latin by Samantha Kelly

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pp. 521-525

On the city of Naples, which has acquired the greatest fame among the other cities of the world on account of the multitude of its knights and of their sumptuous...

118. Philipoctus de Caserta’s Song Text on Louis, Duke of Anjou (ca. 1382) translated from French by Yolanda Plumley

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pp. 526-527

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119. Gift-Giving in Paduan Churches: Four Texts (1374–1405) translated from Latin by Louise Bourdua

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pp. 528-531

[The following gifts] were assigned to friar Almerico of Padua, sacristan in the convent of Saint Antony of Padua, in the presence of brothers Bartolomeo of San Giorgio of Padua, vicar of the provincial minister of the province of Saint Anthony...

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120. Church Inventories from Cortona: Two Texts (1429) translated from Latin by Daniel E. Bornstein

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pp. 532-538

1. Inventory of the Church of San Giorgio of Cortona In the bell tower of the said church, two ringing bells Item, a small ringing bell beside the altar Item, a little...

Chronology

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pp. 539-542

Maps

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pp. 543-544

Genealogical Tables

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pp. 545-548

Medieval Popes, ca. 950–1430

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pp. 549-550

Glossary

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pp. 551-558

Further Reading

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pp. 559-574

List of Contributors

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pp. 575-578

Index

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pp. 579-590

Acknowledgments

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p. 591