Cover

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Title

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Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Foreword

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pp. vii-x

I never had the good fortune to meet John Paton Davies, Jr. But I made his inspiring acquaintance, all the same, in the summer of 1979, thanks to a pair of remarkable books. The first was Eric Sevareid’s then recently reissued 1946 memoir, Not So Wild a Dream, which recounted the harrowing story of his and Davies’s forced bail-out...

Part I: Leaving and Returning

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I. The Firing

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pp. 3-7

The last time I had seen Dulles was in Moscow. As a gesture of bipartisanship, the Truman administration had included him as a Republican in the American delegation to the 1947 Foreign Ministers’ conference there. I was then a First Secretary of the American Embassy. He dined affably with my wife and me, she took him shopping...

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II. From China to America

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pp. 8-13

Caleb Davies came to the United States from Wales, at the age of 23, in the 1870s. He was a merchant clerk intent on improving his lot in life, which he proceeded to do. Through diligence and frugality he became a shopkeeper—drygoods—in Chicago, until burned out by The Fire. Thereupon he moved to Cleveland, began over again, and...

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III. My Itinerant Education

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pp. 14-24

A native restlessness propelled me from Madison at the end of my two years at the Experimental College. I decided to take my junior year of college at Yenching University, near Peking, and then return to the United States for my senior year. Gordon Meiklejohn, my classmate and Alexander Meiklejohn’s son, joined me in the...

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IV. Hankow, the Far East Desk, and Pearl Harbor

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pp. 25-35

On my way from the United States back to Mukden in 1937 word came of the July 7 encounter between Japanese and Chinese troops near Peking that sparked the beginning of Japan’s attempt to conquer China south of the Great Wall. As Manchuria was already under Japanese control, I had no difficulty in returning to my post through...

Part II: "This Assignment is not Made at your Request Nor for your Convenience"

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V. To Asia with Stilwell

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pp. 39-54

Well, things did not work out quite that way. Stilwell, a Major General in command of the Seventh Division at Fort Ord, California, when he wrote to me, and seven months later Commander of the III Corps, was called to Washington a fortnight after the Japanese attack. Pinky accompanied him as aide de camp. At the War Department...

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VI. A Moment with Mr. Gandhi

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pp. 55-69

Most Americans were uninterested in India, except as they imagined it—a freakish place inhabited by snake-charmers, practitioners of the rope trick, starving untouchables, bejeweled maharajahs, and widows flinging themselves in suttee on the funeral pyres of their husbands. Even in places where one might expect to encounter...

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VII. Nehru and ‘‘The Problem’’

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pp. 70-81

India, I had come to realize, was of concern to the United States not only as a base from which to prosecute the war against Japan but also as a potential entanglement in postwar colonial upheavals. I foresaw dreadful troubles in the final stages of and after the war when the European imperial nations attempted to hold on...

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VIII. An American in India

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pp. 82-91

At Trivandrum I found myself unexpectedly in a reviewing stand seated on the right of the Maharani of Travancore. I had arrived at Trivandrum, the capital of Travancore, that morning and sent a note to the Diwan, or Prime Minister, asking for an interview with him. He had courteously received me, and also arranged...

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XI. Willkie, Washington, and Vinegar Joe

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pp. 92-108

Currie, as a special adviser to Roosevelt, was sent to China to placate the Chiangs. They were in high dudgeon because China was receiving fewer American supplies than they wanted and because some air support committed to China had been diverted to stem a powerful German offensive threatening Cairo. Madame Chiang...

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X. Among the Naga Headhunters

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pp. 109-123

There were seventeen of us, passengers for a flight over the Hump to China. It was the morning of August 2, 1943, and we were in an American military transport plane, waiting for takeoff from the big Chabua airbase in the northeastern corner of India. A bored supply corporal drove a truck up to the open door of the aircraft...

Part III: Public and Personal Diplomacy

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XI. The Politics of War

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pp. 127-141

The China Theater was, of course, under the Generalissimo, with Stilwell nominally his Chief of a non-existent Allied staff. India was under the Commander-in-Chief, India, Field Marshal Sir Archibald Wavell, followed by General Sir Claude Auchinleck when Wavell was made Viceroy. Stilwell had no function in the India command...

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XII. Cairo: With Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang

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pp. 142-154

Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang met for the first time at Cairo in November 1943. They were accompanied by their chiefs of staff and other high military officers, including Stilwell, Mountbatten and Chennault. Several Ambassadors were present, but not Gauss. Stilwell took Frank Merrill, Colonel John Liu, who was his Chinese...

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XIII. The Resurrection of Britain’s Empire in Asia May Be Said to Lie Outside the Scope of Our Mission

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pp. 155-163

The head of the Political Warfare Executive (PWE) in India was a Mr. John Galvin. PWE was not part of the Government of India. It was an arm of the British Government, engaged in disseminating undercover information, both truthful and fabricated, designed to confuse and mislead the enemy. Galvin, a few British and American...

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XIV. Patricia’s Passage to India; A Soong Family Fracas

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pp. 164-173

Patricia remained in her job as feature writer and columnist at The Washington Post after our marriage on August 24, 1942. A year and a day later she received a radio message from me: ‘‘Arrived outpost of civilization just in time to send all of my love on our first anniversary.’’ This was the first direct word she had from me following...

Part IV: The Question of China

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XV. Stilwell’s Wars

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pp. 177-193

Stilwell’s northern Burma campaign aimed to clear the enemy from that area so that a road and an oil pipeline could be built from India to China. Likewise, aircraft would be enabled to fly a safer and more economical route over the Hump. Beginning at Ledo in the northeastern corner of India, American Army engineers...

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XVI. The Generalissimo Versus the General

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pp. 194-209

In late August 1944, Stilwell again sent me to Washington, this time with Frank Merrill. While Merrill consulted at the Pentagon regarding the proposed new role for Stilwell, I renewed contacts in Washington, the most important of which was a leisurely conversation with Harry Hopkins on September 4. I recorded Hopkins...

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XVII. Meeting Mao

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pp. 210-225

My inclination was to visit Yenan to obtain a first-hand impression of the Chinese Communists. I wanted, following this, a transfer to the embassy in Moscow from which to observe the Soviet entry into the war against Japan, Soviet relations with the Chinese Communists, and Moscow’s approach to the Chinese civil war, which...

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XVIII. Communists Versus Nationalists Versus Hurley [Includes Image Plates]

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pp. 226-240

Hurley unexpectedly arrived at Yenan on the headquarters aircraft on November 7, 1944. He was nattily garbed in the uniform of a major general, a costume to which he was much attached. Looking over the welcoming throng, Hurley was moved to give forth with a Choctaw war whoop. The rustic Reds were unacquainted...

Part V: Moscow Night and Days

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XIX. Posted to Moscow

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pp. 243-261

Coming from India, Patricia and I had traveled by way of sunlit Tehran, Baku brooding shabbily by the Caspian, and devastated skeletal Stalingrad. Now on March 25, 1945, in a Soviet C-47, we came in through the snowy murk for a power landing at Moscow’s Vnukova airport. It was like entering a mine—dark, chill, musty...

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XX. Hurley’s Opening Salvo

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pp. 262-273

At last the war in Europe came to an end. The Kremlin did not tell its people of the Nazi capitulation until May 9, two days after the instrument of surrender had been signed in the West. They were given a holiday on the tenth. And so it was that some of the Muscovites passing the Embassy on that morning, instead of striding ahead...

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XXI. Postwar Moscow

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pp. 274-286

Harriman left Moscow in January 1946 and Kennan in April, after the arrival of Harriman’s replacement. The Ambassador had completed his wartime service in the Soviet Union and was ready to move on to what turned out to be three decades of public life in varied positions, among them Secretary of Commerce, Ambassador to...

Part VI: At War At Home

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XXII. Returning to America, and the China Lobby

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pp. 289-294

The satisfying and civilized manner in which to approach New York is on the deck of a ship. None of this being trussed to a seat, hunched and craning to peer through a small window in the sky at a tipping and revolving cityscape. Nor a lurching rush by the rears of factories and tenements only to be suddenly swallowed in the dark...

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XXIII. Assigned to Kennan’s Policy Planning Staff

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pp. 295-305

In August 1947 I reported for duty on the Policy Planning Staff, of which Kennan had been appointed Director. It was designated by the initials S/P. The S meant that the staff was part of the Secretary of State’s immediate office and the P indicated the function, policy planning. As director of the staff, Kennan had ready access...

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XXIV. Working with the National Security Council

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pp. 306-311

I was dispatched from the Policy Planning staff several times during October 1948 to the National Security Council office in the old State Department building. There I met in afternoons of solemn communion with a Navy captain and two colonels, one Army, the other Air Force. We were the so-called working level of a recently...

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XXV. Revisiting Asia in 1948

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pp. 312-319

Dramatic changes had taken place on the subcontinent since I had been there three years earlier. Britain had liquidated its Indian Empire, yielding sovereignty to two new states, India and Pakistan. Gandhi had been assassinated by a Hindu fanatic. Nehru, no longer a leader of subversion, and out of jail, was Prime Minister of India. Mountbatten...

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XXVI. ‘‘The Most Nefarious Campaign of Half-Truths and Untruth in the History of the Republic’’

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pp. 320-330

With her command of Estonian, Russian, German, French and English, Valli found a position in the Library of Congress. We maintained contact with her then and after she married John Shannon, becoming thereby a Foreign Service wife, living in unexpected places, winning friends wherever she went and finally retiring tastily...

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Epilogue

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pp. 331-339

John Paton Davies, Jr., was a dedicated and exemplary public servant. He was a highly experienced, learned, aware, and deeply observant Foreign Service officer—as the reader can see from this memoir, which contributes so much to our knowledge of the history of U.S. foreign relations in the 1930s and 1940s. For specialists it fills...

Index

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pp. 341-351

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Acknowledgments

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p. 353

My siblings, Sasha, John, Susan, Jennifer, Deborah, and Megan, and I would like to acknowledge the encouragement of our many friends and express our gratitude to Todd S. Purdum, Dr. Bruce Cumings, and the staff of the University of Pennsylvania Press—especially Bill Finan. And a heartfelt thank you to Michael...