Title Page, Copyright

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pp. iii-iv

CONTENTS

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pp. vii-viii

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PREFACE

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pp. ix-xii

‘‘I really lost it’’ is a phrase we often hear and use today. The ‘‘it’’ may refer to our temper, our mastery over grief, or another currently expected inhibition. We might use this expression when apologizing for deviating from standard restraints, angling for approval, or warning our...

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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p. xiii

A wide array of colleagues and students contributed to this book at various stages of its development. My research assistants for the final segments of the project included Jennifer Rode, Luke Brindle, Ken Billet, Damon Zick, Megan Barke, Darrell Meadows, David Yosifon...

Part I: The Issues

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ONE: The Heart of the Matter

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pp. 3-29

In the late eighteenth century, those Americans beginning to form a new middle class worried about proper norms of behavior. In 1759 John Adams, the future president, described in his diary his concerns about his physical twitches—too often shrugging his shoulders and...

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TWO: Models and Guidelines

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pp. 30-52

Presenting the emergence of a new system of self-control in the twentieth century as directly contributing to the evaluation of current behaviors and concerns builds on a number of intriguing hypotheses about the relationship of past and present social norms. This chapter discusses...

Part II: The Victorian Legacy and the Beginnings of Change

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THREE: The Victorian Style

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pp. 55-91

It is easy to show how the Victorian approach to self-control differed from our own, whatever the judgment of the contemporary state of American morality and civility. According to the educational reformer Horace Mann, expounding the importance of the moral character of...

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FOUR: Transitions

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pp. 92-106

Between 1880 and 1920, Victorianism was substantially redefined and, in some respects, decisively rejected. A full statement of the characteristic twentieth-century patterns of self-control did not emerge until the second quarter of the new century, but the process of implicit reevaluation...

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FIVE: Causation

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pp. 107-130

In many ways, the Victorian system of self-control functioned quite well for nearly a century, gaining precision and adherence with each decade from the 1760s to the 1870s. It helped define middle-class identity while providing some guidelines for the socialization of the American...

PART III: Twentieth-Century Standards

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SIX: New Combinations

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pp. 133-186

The factors that led to the revision of the Victorian style of self-control solidified in the turn-of-the-century decades. Signs of transition, including both relaxations and new targets for constraint, emerged at the same time, although the fuller shift in standards awaited the 1920s and...

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SEVEN: Sexuality

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pp. 187-251

In 1998, Americans were confronted with their capacity to be collectively weird about sex. Democratic President Bill Clinton was caught in an affair with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky, about which he initially lied. Republicans and associated moralists seized on his dilemma...

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EIGHT: The Body and Health

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pp. 252-290

Standards for the body, hygiene, and health escalated steadily during the twentieth century, and in some areas Americans accepted unusually rigorous norms. The contrast with sexual patterns was striking and deliberate. For many, the change was imperceptible because the standards...

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NINE: Addiction and Disease

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pp. 291-320

Earlier arguments about body discipline and even sexuality concentrated on the American tendency toward moralism in converting issues that could be defined as problems of health or beauty or even efficiency into larger challenges to character. This penchant has never precluded a quest...

PART IV: Conclusions and Suggestions

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TEN: Conclusions

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pp. 323-352

Americans in the twentieth century remained highly aware of the need to keep themselves under control—or at least they were told to do so— even though the changes from Victorian standards were very real, with especially dramatic relaxations in manners and recreational culture...

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ELEVEN: An Agenda for Evaluation and Change

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pp. 353-367

Historians usually are uncomfortable moving from a presentation of past developments, of changes and continuities, to an evaluation of their quality. Yet the recent history of self-control invites questions about the results: Is the basic American disciplinary system, modified by exceptions...

NOTES

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pp. 369-426

INDEX

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pp. 427-433

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

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p. 434

Peter N. Stearns is dean of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences and Heinz Professor of History at Carnegie Mellon University. He has won several teaching awards at Carnegie Mellon, where he offers an introductory world history survey as well as advanced courses in social...

Photographs

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pp. 435-450