Analyzing Syntax and Semantics
A Self-Instructional Approach for Teachers and Clinicians
Publication Year: 1984
Published by: Gallaudet University Press
Title Page, Copyright
Human beings, regardless of race or culture, develop language in order to communicate with one another. Most children develop language by listening, watching, and interacting with the people in their environments. There are some children, though, who are incapable of acquiring language through the normal processes, ...
I wish to extend my thanks to Martin Noretsky of the Gallaudet College Instructional Development and Evaluation Center for his tireless work in the development of the selected approach, for his help in editing the text and tests, for his direction of the evaluation process, and for his willingness to give of his own time ...
Language acquisition is a difficult task for children with hearing impairment and learning disorders. These children must be led through the language development process in as natural a way as possible. It is not possible to teach children all the sentences they will ever need to communicate and to acquire knowledge. ...
CHAPTER 1 Nouns and Noun Phrases
The child learns the syntax of language by internalizing the rules for generating sentences rather than by acquiring individual words and building sentences out of this vocabulary. An effective language development program, one that follows the normal pattern of development, will focus on sentences ...
CHAPTER 2 Verb Phrase Constituents
A sentence must consist of a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). This chapter concentrates on adverbials that are obligatory or optional in verb phrases and on adjectives that are obligatory constituents in one type of sentence or that elaborate noun phrases. Obligatory indicates that the word or phrase ...
CHAPTER 3 Verbs and Verb Phrases
In this chapter, as in the preceding ones, the discussion of the sentence constituent is, much of the time, out of the context of sentences, and, for the most part, will be concerned with the grammatical aspects of verbs and their auxiliaries. The verb, however, and the predication it expresses are central ...
CHAPTER 4 Sentence Patterns 1 and 2
Children learn a language through hearing or, in the case of deaf children, through hearing and/or seeing connected language. In comprehending a message they get meaning not only from the individual words in the sentence, but also from the important constituents and the semantic roles of these constituents in sentences. ...
CHAPTER 5 Sentence Patterns 3, 4, and 5
The last three of the five basic sentence patterns contain linking verbs that are stative. The most often used of the linking verbs is the copula be. Sentences of these patterns may be used to express feelings about ourselves or others and to designate states, conditions, or equivalents of persons or things. ...
CHAPTER 6 Language Analysis I and Review
The first five chapters concentrated on constituents in sentences and basic sentences in the language. Basic sentences are sentences without the complexities of negatives, questions, imperatives, personal or other pronouns, contractions, shifted elements, etc., and without clauses that would serve to conjoin ...
CHAPTER 7 Pronominalization
The units in this chapter deal with complexities in sentences, such as questions, imperatives, negatives, passives, and pronominalizations. In generating sentences with such complexities, rules are required in addition to those for the formulation of noun and verb phrases in the basic sentences. ...
CHAPTER 8 Sentence Complexities
The preceding chapter on pronominalization introduced complexity of syntax resulting from the use of various kinds of pronouns. The primary operation involved was substitution of a pronoun for a noun phrase, although some pronominalizations involve substitution of a pronoun for a sentence or series of sentences. ...
CHAPTER 9 Verb Phrase Complexities
Complexities in the verb phrase arise with the addition of auxiliary verbs, contractions, and negations. The be, modal, and have auxiliaries were introduced earlier in the text, and the difficulties associated with their use, both syntactically and semantically, were explained. ...
CHAPTER 10 Question Modalities
There are two major types of questions in the English language: yes-no questions and wh-questions. Included in the yes-no questions are tag questions, which may be considered a third type because of the difference in syntactic structure from other yes-no questions. Semantically, however, there are two forms, ...
CHAPTER 11 Particle Movement and There Transformation
The particle movement (prt movt) and there transformation are operations involving a rearrangement of words in basic sentences, and, in the case of there, the addition of a word. The meaning relationships in the sentence, for the most part, remain the same after the transformation. ...
CHAPTER 12 The Passive Transformation
The italicized verb phrases are all passive voice. An individual not understanding the structure of the passive could derive the wrong information concerning some of the facts of the story. Having arrived at a level of being able to understand the subject-verb-object relationships in sentences, ...
CHAPTER 13 Language Analysis II and Review
The first set of chapters presented basic sentences and complexities in noun and verb phrases. The second set dealt with additional complexities that result from modality changes and from single base transformations, operations involving single sentences. Most of the complexities to this point have been in single ...
CHAPTER 14 Coordination
Complex sentences containing two or more propositions are primarily derived by means of operations. These operations include conjoining, relativization, comple· mentation, and nominalization. Thus far, you have dealt with complex sentences containing two propositions that were derived with operations ...
CHAPTER 15 Subordination
Propositions may be linked in the surface structure to express meaning relationships such as time, location, manner, concession; cause and effect relationships; and conditional relationships. The resulting sentences will consist of an independent clause and a dependent clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction. ...
CHAPTER 16 Relativization
The previous two chapters dealt primarily with complex sentences involving the process of conjoining with either coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. A second operation for relating propositions is relativization, in which one proposition is embedded into a main or core proposition. ...
CHAPTER 17 Comparatives
The ability to use comparatives, both the comparative and superlative degrees, reflects a certain level of cognitive or conceptual maturity. Hargis (1977) commented on the importance of comparative constructions in communicating cognitive processes such as seriation and conservation. ...
CHAPTER 18 Language Analysis III and Review
The preceding chapters introduced conjoinings, relativizations, and comparatives. With the exception of the noun phrase elaborations (adjective, noun adjunct, and possessive modifiers) these syntactic complexities are the first that involve processes by means of which two or more propositions may be expressed in one sentence. ...
CHAPTER 19 Nominalization and Complementation
The previous chapters on coordination and relativization centered on two of the four processes used for relating propositions. Complex sentences, those which express more than a single proposition, may also involve complementation and nominalization. The last chapters deal with these two processes for ...
CHAPTER 20 Complementation with Direct and Indirect Discourse
There are syntactic forms for reporting discourse either verbatim (exactly, e.g., Mother said, "Dad will be late") or in an indirect way (e.g., Mother said that Dad would be late). These syntactic forms, direct and indirect discourse, involve forms of complementation. The reported spoken utterance is syntactically ...
CHAPTER 21 Complementation with Wh-Clauses, Factive Clauses, and Other Nominalizations
The last of the complexities to be presentE!d in the text are also forms of nominalization and complementation. All of the possible complexities of English will not be presented; however, the author's intent has been to present the majority of the structures that the teacher or clinician needs to be aware of for evaluating, ...
CHAPTER 22 Language Analysis IV and Review
The concluding chapter of the text is another review. It contains additional practice on a contrived sample of language that would be typical of a child who is developing language normally. There is also practice on locating complexities in language that would typically be found in reading materials at the elementary-school level. ...
Page Count: 248
Publication Year: 1984
OCLC Number: 70773574
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