Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-xiv

Preface

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pp. xv-xviii

Acknowledgments

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pp. xix-xxii

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Introduction: A Historical and Regional Overview of Latinas in the United States

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pp. 1-28

Since 1540 and the arrival of the Coronado expedition, Spanish-speaking women have migrated north decades, even centuries, before their Euro-American counterparts ventured west. They participated in the founding of Santa Fe in 1610, San Antonio in 1718, and ...

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A

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pp. 29-73

Abarca, Apolonia “Polly” Muñoz 29; Acosta, Lucy 30; Acosta Vice, Celia M. 31; Aging 33; Agostini del Río, Amelia 35; Alatorre, Soledad “Chole” 35; Albelo, Carmen 36; Alfau Galván de Solalinde, Jesusa 37; Allende, Isabel 38; Alonzo, Ventura 38; Altars 40; Alvarez, Aida 41; Alvarez, Cecilia Concepción 42; Alvarez, Delia 43; Alvarez, Julia 44; Alvarez, Linda 44; Alvarez v. Lemon Grove School District 45; Americanization Programs 46; Antonetty, Evelina López 48; Antonio Maceo Brigade 49; Anzaldúa, Gloria 51; Apodaca, Felicitas 52; Aprenda y Superese 54; Aragón, Jesusita 54; Arballo, María Feliciana 55; Arguello, María de la Concepción (Sister María Dominica) 56; Arías, Anna María 57; Arizona Orphan Abduction 58; Armiño, Franca de 59; Arocho, Juanita 60; Arroyo, Carmen E. 61; Arroyo, Martina 62; Artists 63; Asociación Nacional México-Americana (ANMA) 67; ASPIRA 68; ASPIRA v. New York City Board of Education 69; Avila, María Elena 69; Avila, Modesta 70; Aztlán 71

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B

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pp. 74-102

Babín, María Teresa 74; Baca, Judith Francesca 74; Baca Barragán, Polly 75; Baez, Joan Chandos 76; Barceló, María Gertrudis (“La Tules”) 78; Barnard, Juana Josefina Cavasos 79; Barraza, Santa Contreras 80; Barrera, Plácida Peña 81; Belpré, Pura 83; Bencomo, Julieta Saucedo 84; Bernal, Martha 85; Bernasconi, Socorro Hernández 86; Betances Jaeger, Clotilde 87; Betanzos, Amalia V. 88; Bilingual Education 88; Black Legend 90; Blake, María DeCastro 91; Borrero Pierra, Juana 93; Boyar, Monica 94; Bozak, Carmen Contreras 95; Bracero Program 96; Braga, Sonia 99; Briones, María Juana 99; Burciaga, Mirna Ramos 100

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C

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pp. 103-186

Caballero, Diana 103; Cabeza de Baca, Fabiola 104; Cabrera, Angelina “Angie” 105; Cabrera, Lydia 106; Calderón, Rose Marie 107; California Missions 108; California Sanitary Canning Company Strike 110; Callejo, Adelfa Botello 111; Callis de Fages, Eulalia Francesca y Josepha 112; Calvillo, Ana María del Carmen 113; Canales, Laura 114; Canales, Nohelia de los Angeles 115; Canino, María Josefa 116; Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (CAWIU) 117; Cántico de la Mujer Latina 118; Capetillo, Luisa 119; Carbonell, Anna 119; Cardona, Alice 120; Carr, Vikki 121; Carrillo de Fitch, Josefa 122; Casal, Lourdes 123; Casals, Rosemary 124; Casanova de Villaverde, Emilia 125; Casita Maria, New York 126; Castillo, Ana 128; Castillo, Guadalupe 129; Castro, Rosie 130; Castro, Victoria M. “Vickie” 131; Ceja, Amelia Moran 132; Central American Immigrant Women 134; Centro de Acción Social Autónomo (CASA) 137; Centro Hispano Católico 139; Centro Mater 139; Cepeda-Leonardo, Margarita 140; Cervantes, Lorna Dee 140; Chabram, Angie González 142; Chacón, Soledad Chávez 143; “Charo” (María Rosario Pilar Martínez Molina Baeza) 144; Chávez, Denise 144; Chávez, Helen 146; Chávez, Linda 147; Chávez Ravine, Los Angeles 148; Chávez-Thompson, Linda 149; Chicana Caucus/National Women’s Political Caucus 150; Chicana Rights Project 151; Chicano Movement 151; Chicanos Por La Causa (CPLC) 155; Cigar Workers 156; Cinema Images, Contemporary 159; Círculo Cultural Isabel la Católica 161; Cisneros, Sandra 161; Clínica de la Beneficencia Mexicana 162; Collazo, Rosa Cortéz 163; Colón, Miriam 164; Colón, Rufa Concepción Fernández (“Concha”) 166; Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional (CFMN) 167; Communist Party 168; Communities Organized for Public Service (COPS) 169; Community Service Organization (CSO) 170; Congreso del Pueblo 172; Córdova, Lina 173; Corridos 175; Cossio y Cisneros, Evangelina 176; Cotera, Martha 177; Crawford, Mercedes Margarita Martínez 178; Cruz, Celia 179; Cuban and Puerto Rican Revolutionary Party 181; Cuban Independence Women’s Clubs 182; Cuban Women’s Club 183; Cuban-Spanish-American War 184; Cuero, Delfina 185

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D

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pp. 187-220

Davis, Grace Montañez 187; De Acosta, Aida 188; De Acosta, Mercedes 189; De Aragón, Uva 190; De Arteaga, Genoveva 191; De Avila, Dolores C. 192; De Burgos, Julia 193; De la Cruz, Jessie López 194; De la Cruz, Sor Juana Inés 196; De la Garza, Beatríz 197; De León, Patricia de la Garza 198; Del Castillo, Adelaida Rebecca 199; Del Prado, Pura 200; Del Río, Dolores 201; Del Valle, Carmen 202; Delgado, Jane L. 203; Demography 204; Deportations during the Great Depression 209; DiMartino, Rita 211; Dimas, Beatrice Escadero 212; Domestic Violence 214; Domestic Workers 216; Dominican American National Roundtable (DANR) 217; Dueto Carmen y Laura 218; Durazo, María Elena 219

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E

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pp. 221-244

Echaveste, María 221; Education 222; El Congreso de Pueblos de Hablan Española 226; El Monte Berry Strike 226; El Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA) 227; El Paso Laundry Strike 228; El Rescate 229; Entrepreneurs 229; Environment and the Border 232; Escajeda, Josefina 236; Escalona, Beatríz (“La Chata Noloesca”) 236; Escobar, Carmen Bernal 237; Espaillat, Rhina P. 238; Espinosa-Mora, Deborah 239; Esquivel, Gregoria 240; Esquivel, Yolanda Almaraz 241; Estefan, Gloria 242; Esteves, Sandra María 243

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F

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pp. 245-273

Family 245; Farah Strike 249; Farmworkers 250; Feminism 253; Fernández, Beatrice “Gigi” 255; Fernández, Mary Joe 255; Fernández, Rosita 256; Ferré Aguayo, Sor Isolina 257; Fierro, Josefina 259; Figueroa, Belén 260; Figueroa Mercado, Loida 261; Flores, Diana 263; Flores, Francisca 264; Florez, Encarnación Villarreal Escobedo 265; Folk Healing Traditions 266; Fontañez, Jovita 270; Fornés, María Irene 270; Friendly House, Phoenix 271; Fuerza Unida 272

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G

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pp. 274-307

Gallegos, Carmen Cornejo 274; Ganados del Valle 274; Gangs 276; García, Cristina 278; García, Eva Carrillo de 280; García, Providencia “Provi” 280; García Cortese, Aimee 282; García-Aguilera, Carolina 283; Garcíaz, María 284; Garment Industry 285; Giant 286; Gómez Carbonell, María 288; Gómez-Potter, Socorro 289; Gonzáles, Elvira Rodríguez de 290; González, Laura 290; González, Matiana 292; González Mireles, Jovita 292; Govea, Jessica 294; Grau, María Leopoldina “Pola” 295; Great Depression and Mexican American Women 297; Guerra, Fermina 300; Guerrero, Rosa 300; Guerrero, Victoria Partida 302; Guillen Herrera, Rosalinda 303; Gutiérrez, Luz Bazán 305; Guzmán, Madre María Dominga 306

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H

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pp. 308-335

Hamlin, Rosalie Méndez 308; Hayworth, Rita 309; Head Start 310; Health: Current Issues and Trends 311; Henríquez Ureña, Camila 315; Hernández, Antonia 317; Hernández, Ester 318; Hernández, María Latigo 319; Hernández, Olivia 320; Hernández, Victoria 322; Herrada, Elena 323; Herrera, Carolina 324; Herrera, María Cristina 325; Hijas de Cuauhtémoc 326; Hinojosa, Tish 327; Hispanic Mother-Daughter Program (HMDP) 328; Houchen Settlement, El Paso 329; Huerta, Cecilia Olivarez 331; Huerta, Dolores 332; Hull-House, Chicago 333

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I

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pp. 336-350

Idar Juárez, Jovita 336; Immigration of Latinas to the United States 337; Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) 341; Intermarriage, Contemporary 342; Intermarriage, Historical 344; International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) 348

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J

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pp. 351-358

Jaramillo, Cleofas Martínez 351; Jiménez, María de los Angeles 352; Journalism and Print Media 353; Jurado, Katy 358

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K

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pp. 359-361

Kimbell, Sylvia Rodríguez 359; Kissinger, Beatrice Amado 360

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L

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pp. 362-414

La Llorona 362; “La Lupe” (Guadalupe Victoria Yoli Raymond) 363; La Malinche (Malinalli Tenepal) 364; La Mujer Obrera 366; La Raza Unida Party 367; Labor Unions 368; Lares, Michelle Yvette “Shelly” 372; Las Hermanas 373; Latina U.S. Treasurers 374; Latinas in the U.S. Congress 375; League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) 378; Lebrón, Dolores “Lolita” 380; Ledesma, Josephine 381; Lee Tapia, Consuelo 382; Legal Issues 383; León, Ruth Esther Soto (“La Hermana León”) 384; León, Tania 385; Lesbians 386; “Letter from Chapultepec” 388; Liberation Theology 389; Líderes Campesinas 390; Literature 392; Lobo, Rebecca Rose 396; Lomas Garza, Carmen 397; Lone Star 397; López, Lillian 401; López, María I. 402; López, Nancy Marie 403; López, Rosie 403; López, Yolanda 404; López Córdova, Gloria 406; Lorenzana, Apolinaria 407; Los Angeles Garment Workers’ Strike 408; Lozano, Alicia Guadalupe Elizondo 410; Lozano, Emma 411; Lozano, Mónica Cecilia 412; Lucas, María Elena 413

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M

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pp. 415-509

Machuca, Ester 415; Madrid, Patricia A. 415; Madrigal v. Quilligan 416; Maldonado, Amelia Margarita 419; Maquiladoras 420; Mariachi 421; Mariachi Estrella de Topeka 422; Marianismo and Machismo 423; Marshall, Guadalupe 424; Martí de Cid, Dolores 425; Martínez, Agueda Salazar 426; Martínez, Anita N. 426; Martínez, Demetria 428; Martínez, Elizabeth Sutherland “Betita” 429; Martínez, Frances Aldama 430; Martínez, Vilma S. 431; Martínez Santaella, Inocencia 433; McBride, Teresa N. 433; Mederos y Cabañas de González, Elena Inés 434; Media Stereotypes 436; Medicine 438; Medina, Esther 440; Meléndez, Concha 441; Meléndez, Sara 442; Méndez, Consuelo Herrera 443; Méndez, Olga A. 444; Méndez v. Westminster 445; Mendieta, Ana 447; Mendoza, Lydia 448; Mendoza, María Estella Altamirano 448; Mendoza v. Tucson School District No. 1 450; Mercado, Victoria “Vicky” 451; Mesa-Bains, Amalia 452; Mestizaje 453; Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) 457; Mexican American Women’s National Association (MANA) 458; Mexican Mothers’ Club, University of Chicago Settlement House 459; Mexican Revolution 460; Mexican Revolution, Border Women in 464; Mexican Schools 466; Migration and Labor 468; Military Service 473; Miller, Esther 475; Mining Communities 476; Miranda, Carmen 478; Mistral, Gabriela (Lucila Godoy Alcayaga) 479; Mohr, Nicholasa 480; Mojica-Hammer, Ruth 481; Molina, Gloria 482; Montemayor, Alice Dickerson 483; Montes-Donnelly, Elba Iris 484; Montez, María (María Africa Gracia Vidal) 485; Mora, Magdalena 487; Mora, Patricia “Pat” 488; Moraga, Cherríe 488; Moraga, Gloria Flores 489; Morales, Iris 491; Morales-Horowitz, Nilda M. 492; Moreno, Luisa 492; Moreno, Rita (Rosa Dolores Alverio) 494; Morillo, Irma 496; Mothers of East Los Angeles (MELA) 497; Movie Stars 497; Mugarrieta, Elvira Virginia (Babe Bean; Jack Bee Garland) 502; Mujeres in Action, Sunset Park, Brooklyn 503; Mujeres Latinas en Acción (MLEA) 505; Mujeres por la Raza 506; Mujerista Theology 507; Munguía, Carolina Malpica de 508; Muñoz, María del Carmen 509

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N

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pp. 510-532

National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies (NACCS) 510; National Association of Puerto Rican/Hispanic Social Workers (NAPRHSW) 511; National Chicana Conference 512; National Conference of Puerto Rican Women (NACOPRW) 513; National Council of La Raza (NCLR) 514; National Hispanic Feminist Conference 515; National Puerto Rican Forum 516; Naturalization 517; Navarro, M. Susana 519; Nerio, Trinidad 520; New Economics for Women (NEW) 521; New York City Mission Society (NYCMS) 522; Nieto, Sonia 523; Nieto Gómez, Anna 524; Norte, Marisela 525; Novello, Antonia Coello 526; Nuestra Señora de la Divina Providencia 528; Núñez, Ana Rosa 529; Nuns, Colonial 530; Nuns, Contemporary 531

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O

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pp. 533-551

Obejas, Achy 533; Ochoa, Ellen 534; O’Donnell, Sylvia Colorado 535; Olivares, Olga Ballesteros 535; Olivarez, Graciela 537; Olivera, Mercedes 538; Ontiveros, Manuela 540; Operation Pedro Pan 541; Orozco, Aurora Estrada 543; Ortega, Carlota Ayala 544; Ortiz Cofer, Judith 545; Ortiz y Pino de Kleven, María Concepción “Concha” 546; O’Shea, María Elena 547; Otero-Smart, Ingrid 548; Otero-Warren, Adelina 549

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P

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pp. 552-595

Pachucas 552; Palacio-Grottola, Sonia 555; Pantoja, Antonia 557; Parsons, Lucia González 558; Patiño Río, Dolores 559; Pauwels Pfeiffer, Linda Lorena 561; Payán, Ilka Tanya 562; Pedroso, Paulina 563; Peña de Bordas, (Ana) Virginia de 563; Peñaranda, Ana Marcial 564; Pentecostal Church 565; Perales, Nina 569; Pérez, Eulalia 570; Pérez, Graciela 571; Pérez v. Sharp 573; Phelps Dodge Strike 573; Phillips, Carmen Romero 574; Pilsen Neighbors Community Council 575; Pinedo, Encarnación 576; Politics, Electoral 577; Politics, Party 579; Popular Religiosity 581; Prida, Dolores 582; Propositions 187 and 209 583; Puerto Rican Association for Community Affairs (PRACA) 584; Puerto Rican Radical Politics in New York 585; Puerto Rican Women Political Prisoners 587; Puerto Ricans in Hawaii 591

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Q

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pp. 596-602

Quesada, Alicia Otilia 596; Quesada, Dora Ocampo 597; Quinceañera 598; Quintanilla Pérez, Selena 600; Quintero, Luisa 601

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R

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pp. 603-651

Race and Color Consciousness 603; Ramírez, Emilia Schunior 607; Ramírez, Sara Estela 608; Ramírez, Tina 609; Ramírez de Arellano, Diana 609; Rangel, Irma 611; Rape 611; Reid, Marita 613; Reid, Victoria Comicrabit 614; Religion 615; Reyes, Guadalupe 622; Rico, Angelina Moreno 623; Rincón de Gautier, Felisa 624; Rivera, Aurelia “Yeya” 625; Rivera, Chita 626; Rivera, Graciela 627; Rivera, Roxana 629; Rivera Martínez, Domitila 630; Robles Díaz, Inés 631; Rodríguez, Hermelinda Morales 632; Rodríguez, “Isabel” Hernández 633; Rodríguez, Josefa “Chepita” 634; Rodríguez, Patricia 634; Rodríguez, Sofía 636; Rodríguez Cabral, María Cristina 637; Rodríguez de Tió, Lola 637; Rodríguez McLean, Verneda 639; Rodríguez Remeneski, Shirley 640; Rodríguez-Trias, Helen 641; Romero Cash, Marie 643; Rosado Rousseau, Leoncia (“Mamá Léo”) 644; Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana 645; Roybal-Allard, Lucille 646; Ruiz, Bernarda 647; Ruiz, Irene Hernández 649; Ruiz de Burton, María Amparo 650

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S

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pp. 652-731

Sada, María G. “Chata” 652; Salsa 652; Salt of the Earth 656; San Antonio, Ana Gloria 657; San Antonio Pecan Shellers’ Strike 658; San Joaquin Valley Cotton Strike 659; San Juan, Olga 662; Sánchez, Loretta 662; Sánchez, María Clemencia 663; Sánchez, María E. 664; Sánchez Cruz, Rebecca 666; Sánchez Garfunkel, Aura Luz 667; Santería 669; Santiago, Petra 670; Saralegui, Cristina 672; Saucedo, María del Jesús 673; Schechter, Esperanza Acosta Mendoza “Hope” 674; Scientists 675; Sena, Elvira 679; Sepúlveda, Emma 680; Sexuality 681; Silva, Chelo 682; Silva de Cintrón, Josefina “Pepiña” 682; “Sister Carmelita” (Carmela Zapata Bonilla Marrero) 683; Slavery 684; Sloss-Vento, Adela 686; Smeltertown, El Paso 687; Smith, Plácida Elvira García 689; Soldaderas 690; Solis, Hilda L. 691; Sosa-Riddell, Adaljiza 692; Soto Feliciano, Carmen Lillian “Lily” 694; Souchet, Clementina 695; Southwest Voter Registration Education Project (SVREP) 696; Spanish Borderlands 697; Colonial Law 700; Comadrazgo 703; Early Settlement Life in the Borderlands 704; Encomienda 708; Women in California 709; Women in New Mexico 710; Women in St. Augustine 714; Women in Texas 716; Women’s Wills 719; Spiritism 720; Spiritism in New York City 721; Sterilization 723; Street Vending 725; Student Movements 727; Substitute Auxiliary Teachers (SATs) 728; Swilling, Trinidad Escalante 730

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T

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pp. 732-768

Tabaqueros’ Unions 732; Talamante, Olga 733; Tarango, Yolanda 734; Telenovelas 735; Television 736; Tempe Normal School 740; Ten Years’ War 742; Tenayuca, Emma 743; Tex-Son Strike 745; Theater 746; Padua Hills Theater 748; Playwrights 748; Puerto Rican Traveling Theater (PRTT) 751; Teatro Campesino 752; Villalongín Dramatic Company 753; Toraño-Pantín, María Elena 754; Torres, Alva 756; Torres, Ida Inés 757; Torres, Lourdes 758; Torres, Patsy (Patricia Donita) 759; Tovar, Lupita 760; Toypurina 761; Trambley, Estela Portillo 762; Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 762; Treaty of Paris 766; Treviño-Sauceda, Mily 766; Tufiño, Nitza 767

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U

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pp. 769-781

Ulibarrí Sánchez, Louise 769; United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing, and Allied Workers of America (UCAPAWA/FTA) 770; United Farm Workers of America (UFW) 772; Women in the United Farm Workers (UFW) 773; U.S.-Mexican War 776; Urquides, María Luisa Legarra 779; Urrea, Teresa 780

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V

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pp. 782-804

Valdez, Patssi 782; Vallejo, Epifania de Guadalupe 783; Vallejo de Leese, María Paula Rosalía 784; Vanguardia Puertorriqueña 785; Varela, Beatriz 786; Varela, María 787; Vásquez, Anna 788; Vásquez, Enriqueta Longeaux y 789; Velázquez, Loreta Janeta 790; Velázquez, Nydia M. 791; Vélez, Lupe 793; Vélez de Vando, Emelí 793; Vélez-Mitchell, Anita 795; Vicioso Sánchez, Sherezada “Chiqui” 797; Vidal, Irma 798; Vidaurri, Rita 799; Villarreal, Andrea and Teresa 800; Viramontes, Helena María 800; Virgen de Guadalupe 801; Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre 803; Voting Rights Act 804

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W

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pp. 805-814

Watsonville Strike 805; Welch, Raquel 806; West Side Story 807; Wilcox, Mary Rose Garrido 808; Wolf, Esther Valladolid 809; World War II 810

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Y

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pp. 815-817

Ybarra, Eva 815; Young Lords 815

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Z

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pp. 818-822

Zamora, Bernice B. Ortiz 818; Zárate, Rosa Marta 819; Zúñiga, Alejandra Rojas 820

List of Biographical Entries

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pp. 823-828

List of Organizations

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pp. 829-830

Selected Readings in Latina History

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pp. 831-834

Notes on Contributors

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pp. 835-850

Index

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pp. 851-886