We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Dark Mirrors

Azazel and Satanael in Early Jewish Demonology

Andrei A. Orlov

Publication Year: 2011

Discusses the two most important figures in early Jewish mythologies of evil, the fallen angels Azazel and Satanael. Dark Mirrors is a wide-ranging study of two central figures in early Jewish demonology—the fallen angels Azazel and Satanael. Andrei A. Orlov explores the mediating role of these paradigmatic celestial rebels in the development of Jewish demonological traditions from Second Temple apocalypticism to later Jewish mysticism, such as that of the Hekhalot and Shi>ur Qomah materials. Throughout, Orlov makes use of Jewish pseudepigraphical materials in Slavonic that are not widely known. Orlov traces the origins of Azazel and Satanael to different and competing mythologies of evil, one to the Fall in the Garden of Eden, the other to the revolt of angels in the antediluvian period. Although Azazel and Satanael are initially representatives of rival etiologies of corruption, in later Jewish and Christian demonological lore each is able to enter the other’s stories in new conceptual capacities. Dark Mirrors also examines the symmetrical patterns of early Jewish demonology that are often manifested in these fallen angels’ imitation of the attributes of various heavenly beings, including principal angels and even God himself.

Published by: State University of New York Press

Dark Mirrors

pdf iconDownload PDF


pdf iconDownload PDF

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. ix-x

The format and the style of the original publications have been changed to comply with the standards of the collection. Some alterations also have been made due to printing errors or obvious errors of fact. Some footnotes have been omitted as they appeared in more than one essay...


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. xi-xv

read more

Introduction. Lightless Shadows: Symmetry of Good and Evil in Early Jewish Demonology

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 1-8

In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the study of the symmetrical patterns found in early Jewish apocalyptic literature. In this literature protological and eschatological times seem to be understood as periods that mirror each other. One instance of this symmetry of protology and eschatology can be found in the early Jewish pseudepigraphon known to...

read more

"The Likeness of Heaven": Kavod of Azazel in the Apocalypse of Abraham

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 11-26

Chapter 14 of the Apocalypse of Abraham, a Jewish pseudepigraphon written in the first centuries CE, unveils an enigmatic tradition about the unusual power given to the main antagonist of the story, the fallen angel Azazel. In the text, Abraham’s celestial guide, the angel Yahoel, warns his human apprentice, the hero of the faith, that God endowed his chief eschatological...

read more

Eschatological Yom Kippur in the Apocalypse of Abraham: The Scapegoat Ritual

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 27-46

In the second part of the Apocalypse of Abraham its hero—the patriarch Abraham–encounters an angelic being appointed by God to be his celestial guide. This creature, named in the apocalypse as the angel Yahoel, baffles the seer’s imagination with his enigmatic appearance. The text describes him as a composite pteromorphic being with a body shining like sapphire...

read more

The Garment of Azazel in the Apocalypse of Abraham

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 47-81

The Apocalypse of Abraham baffles its readers’ imaginations with a plethora of sacerdotal motifs. From its very first lines, this enigmatic text strives to portray young Abraham and his relatives as cultic servants performing priestly duties in a sanctuary filled with idolatrous statues. The readers of the text soon recognize that its peculiar cultic concerns permeate the fabric of the...

read more

The Watchers of Satanael: The Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 85-106

The first part of 2 Enoch, a Jewish pseudepigraphon written in the first century CE, deals with the heavenly ascent of the seventh antediluvian hero carried by his angelic psychopomps to the abode of the deity. Slowly progressing through the heavens while receiving detailed explanations of their content from his angelic interpreters, in one of them, the patriarch encounters the...

read more

Satan and the Visionary: Apocalyptic Roles of the Adversary in the Temptation Narrative of the Gospel of Matthew

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 107-112

Scholars believe that the stories of Jesus’ temptation by Satan found in Matthew and Luke emanated from Q. Both of them are also informed by the temptation narrative found in the Gospel of Mark. The accounts found in Matthew and Luke are different in several aspects. One of the differences is that the Gospel of Luke, similar to the Gospel of Mark, states...

read more

The Flooded Arboretums: The Garden Traditions in the Slavonic Version of 3 Baruch and the Book of Giants

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 113-125

The apocalypse known as 3 Baruch depicts a celestial tour during which an angelic guide leads a visionary through five heavens, revealing to him the wonders of the upper realm. Scholars have noted that some details of this heavenly journey resonate with the visionary accounts found in Enochic materials. Despite the similarities, the author of 3 Baruch seems to avoid...


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 127-178


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 179-196


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 197-201

E-ISBN-13: 9781438439532
E-ISBN-10: 1438439539
Print-ISBN-13: 9781438439518
Print-ISBN-10: 1438439512

Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 2011

OCLC Number: 775360930
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Dark Mirrors

Research Areas


UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • Azazel (Jewish mythology).
  • Devil.
  • Jewish demonology.
  • Apocalypse of Abraham -- Criticism, interpretation, etc.
  • Slavonic book of Enoch -- Criticism, interpretation, etc.
  • Apocryphal books (Old Testament) -- Translations into Slavic -- History and criticism.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access