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The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century

American Capitalism and Tribal Natural Resources, Second Editions

By Donald Fixico

Publication Year: 2012

“Fixico’s brilliant study . . . is more than an insightful examination of the fraud and violence experienced by the Osage, Creek, and other individuals and nations at the hands of greedy corporations and ‘gold diggers.’ It covers recent efforts of the Indian governments to gain adequate compensation and protection for their resources. [The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century] fills a vast void in our understanding of Indian-white relations.”—James Riding-In, Arizona State University

The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century, Second Edition is updated through the first decade of the twenty-first century and contains a new chapter challenging Americans—Indian and non-Indian—to begin healing the earth. This analysis of the struggle to protect not only natural resources but also a way of life serves as an indispensable tool for students or anyone interested in Native American history and current government policy with regard to Indian lands or the environment.

Published by: University Press of Colorado


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p. vii

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pp. ix-xiv

Like many people, I have often been stuck in traffic jams in large cities and observed countless automobiles wasting gasoline. Then, while driving through industrial centers with tall smokestacks spewing the remains of burning coal or oil, I have been forced to breathe thick, hazy air with a grayish tint. ...

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pp. xv-xix

When the first Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere during the sixteenth century, they sought the land and its natural resources for their own benefit, intent on enriching their homelands. First the Spanish, then the French, followed by the Dutch, the British, and even the Russians laid claims along ...

Part 1: Elements of Indian Society and Policies

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1: Jackson Barnett and the Allotment of Muscogee Creek Lands

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pp. 3-26

Jackson Barnett, a full-blood Muscogee Creek,1 epitomized the exploitation of many Indian people during the allotment of tribal lands between 1887 and the mid-1920s. Caught in the capitalist web of the white world, the Creek and other allotted Indians found their lives chaotic and threatened upon being assigned ...

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2: The Osage Murders and Oil

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pp. 27-54

The murders of the Osage for the royalty money they had received from oil has been called the “reign of terror,” and they represented the most blatant expression of the greed for Indian lands. In one notorious case, more than a dozen murders occurred within one family. Following a three-year investigation ...

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3: Struggle for Pueblo Water Rights in the Southwest

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pp. 55-78

Indian communities in the Southwest have depended on water from the Rio Grande since prehistoric times. Called “the Great River” by the Spanish, the 445-mile Rio Grande is the second longest river in the United States and serves for a lengthy distance as the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. ...

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4: Termination of the Klamath and Timberlands in the Pacific Northwest

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pp. 79-102

Located in southeastern Oregon, the Klamath Reservation is blessed with thick, green stands of timber and embraced by the Cascades sloping from the Rocky Mountains. Tall ponderosa pines and white fir trees drape the land belonging to the Klamath in a natural basin of marshes and streams alive with fish, ...

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5: Chippewa Fishing and Hunting Rights in the Great Lakes

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pp. 103-122

During the 1980s, a long-dormant issue concerning Indian fishing and hunting rights exploded in the state of Wisconsin. Battles in the courts, fistfights at lakes, and racial slurs yelled at Indian people plagued the state as racism caused hostilities pitting whites against Indians. Indian-white relations reached a new low, ...

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6: Controversy and Spirituality in the Black Hills

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pp. 123-140

The Black Hills rest on an extraordinary site of natural beauty with two monuments—Mount Rushmore and the Crazy Horse Mountain—commemorating the long and troubled history between Indians and whites in this area. Indian and white interests differed, and their attitudes clashed. Their cultures were opposites, ...

Part 2: Defense Strategies for Tribal Natural Resources

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7: The Demand for Natural Resources on Reservations

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pp. 143-158

More than 100 years ago, Indian tribal leaders were forced to negotiate with white Americans and the U.S. government for possession of Indian lands. Today’s tribal leaders face a similar situation, due to the growing energy crisis and increased demands for natural resources. Depletion of America’s mineral reserves ...

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8: The Council of Energy Resource Tribes

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pp. 159-176

The long history of the exploitation of Indian tribes for their natural resources provoked great concern among Native Americans and ultimately led tribes with natural resources on their lands to organize. In the 1970s, after more than seventy-five years of losing their resources to whites, the tribes formed ...

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9: Battlegrounds in the Courts

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pp. 177-188

Since the turn of the twentieth century, American Indian tribes have learned new ways to defend the natural resources on their reservations. The days of sending warriors against the U.S. Army have faded into history, and Indian leaders have adopted new tactics as the battleground has shifted. ...

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10: Environmental Issues and Tribal Leadership

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pp. 189-204

In the history of Indian-white relations, the ownership of land has been greatly contested, with almost 2,000 wars and hostile engagements being waged. The outcome became one-sided by the late nineteenth century, and the legacy of exploitation continues today. The essential problem is one of capitalistic greed ...

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11: American Indian Philosophy and Global Concerns

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pp. 205-218

Long ago, the many Indian tribes of the Americas learned to live with the various climates, flora, and fauna of their environments. They developed a relationship with nature, characterized by harmonious respect. Few generalizations cover all of their philosophies, but there are basic points that are relevant when ...

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12: Healing the Earth in the Twenty-first Century

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pp. 219-240

Although human beings are fond of marking each fin-de-siècle with great fanfare (as well as angst), the earth, unfettered from calendars or clocks, knows no difference between the current and previous centuries. In earth knowledge, human measures of time are less relevant. Imagine that instead of a clock ...

Appendix A: CERT Member Tribes and Natural Resources for 1990

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pp. 241-242

Appendix B: Structure of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes

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pp. 243-244

Appendix C: Tribal Oil and Gas Production

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pp. 245-246


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pp. 247-264


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pp. 265-278

E-ISBN-13: 9781607321491
E-ISBN-10: 1607321491
Print-ISBN-13: 9781607321484
Print-ISBN-10: 1607321483

Page Count: 304
Publication Year: 2012

OCLC Number: 774398885
MUSE Marc Record: Download for The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century

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Subject Headings

  • Natural resources -- United States.
  • Indians of North America -- Land tenure.
  • Indian reservations -- United States.
  • Indians of North America -- Government relations.
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