Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Illustrations and Maps

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p. ix

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Acknowledgements

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p. xi

This book and the workshop it came from originated from my experiences growing up along the Canadian–American border. The very existence of the border was so ingrained in my psyche and taken for granted as an inconvenience rather than an actual barrier that it took my dissertation supervisor, Professor Catherine Desbarats, to remind me that I was discussing a border...

"Drawing/Erasing the Border"

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p. xii

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Introduction

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pp. xiii-xxiii

Prompted by my own interest in the Anishinabeg and Métis living in the Sault Ste. Marie borderlands, discussions with colleagues interested in similar regions, and several recent studies on the Canadian–American border, I organized the workshop that became the basis of this volume. Over the course of three days in February 2005, participants discussed,...

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1. "We have no spirit to celebrate with you the great [1893] Columbian Fair": Aboriginal Peoples of the Great Lakes Respond to Canadian and United States Policies During the Nineteenth Century

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pp. 1-19

In 1893, Chief Simon Pokagon, a sixty-three-year-old Michigan Potawatomi, spoke at the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition. His words carried the authority and the pain of one who endured both Indian removal and the ordeal of reservation life: We have no spirit to celebrate with you the great Columbia Fair.... Where these great Columbian show-buildings stretch skyward, and where stands this “Queen City of the West” once stood the red man’s...

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2. Cross-border Treaty-signers: The Anishnaabeg of the Lake Huron Borderlands

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pp. 21-41

From the swirling waters of the St. Mary’s rapids at the Twin Saults, to the St. Clair River delta that gives rise to Walpole Island, the Lake Huron Borderlands comprise a true Indigenous nation. Native people have lived in this area since the glacial waters subsided and the Great Lakes took on their present configuration—about 2,500 years ago. The rich fishery...

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3. From Intercolonial Messenger to "Christian Indian": The Flemish Bastard and the Mohawk Struggle for Independence from New France and Colonial New York in the Eastern Great Lakes Borderland, 1647–1687

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pp. 43-63

The seventeenth-century Mohawk war chief, negotiator, intercolonial messenger, and “Christian Indian” of Dutch-Mohawk descent who is best known as the Flemish Bastard has remained an obscure individual in the historiography of Native–European relations in colonial North America. It is true that the Flemish Bastard has been recognized by some...

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4. The Anishinabeg and Métis in the Sault Ste. Marie Borderlands: Confronting a Line Drawn upon the Water

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pp. 65-84

The creation and survey of an international boundary by drawing a line through the water irrevocably and artificially divided the Sault Ste. Marie Anishinabeg and Métis communities. This was certainly the view of the Baptist Reverend Abel Bingham, who observed in 1844 that a new era had definitively begun for the Indians when the British and American...

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5. In the Shadow of the Thumping Drum: The Sault Métis—The People In-Between

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pp. 85-113

A prevailing perspective has been that Sault Ste. Marie was little more than a retirement village for petty merchants and former voyageurs (known commonly as the “comers and goers”), a sheltered haven away from the vicissitudes of the trading world. From as far away as the Red River, the Sault was viewed as a minor player in the métis community...

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6. "Those freebooters would shoot me like a dog": American Terrorists and Homeland Security in the Journals of Ezhaaswe (William A. Elias [1856–1929])

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pp. 115-129

A prevailing perspective has been that Sault Ste. Marie was little more than a retirement village for petty merchants and former voyageurs (known commonly as the “comers and goers”), a sheltered haven away from the vicissitudes of the trading world. From as far away as the Red River, the Sault was viewed as a minor player in the métis community...

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7. Shifting Boundaries and the Baldoon Mysteries

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pp. 131-150

Once Britain and the United States had agreed to the extent of their sovereign domains, a border between them was drawn across the Great Lakes by the Treaty of Paris of 1763. However, unresolved issues, such as compensation for losses suffered by the United Empire Loyalists, left the old Northwest in dispute. Once those differences had been resolved,...

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8. The Baldoon Settlement: Rethinking Sustainability

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pp. 151-173

The words spoken by Dean Jacobs of Walpole Island First Nation have become significant to this Wallaceburg researcher. Significant, as having been born and raised on the traditional territories of the Anishinaabe, I have realized that the current paths toward environmental, economic, political, and social sustainability are illusory. They are guided...

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9. Nativism's Bastard: Neolin, Tenskwatawa, and the Anishinabeg Methodist Movement

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pp. 175-190

The story of the Anishinabeg and the Loyalist settlers in Upper Canada (now Ontario) has been told without its beginning. Few places could benefit more from reorienting historical analyses, from a perspective shaped by borders to one in search of borderlands between empires.1 The phenomenon of Anishinabeg people, who for two centuries showed...

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10. Borders Within: Anthropology and the Six Nations of the Grand River

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pp. 191-203

Among the nineteenth-century records of the Ontario Historical Society is a curious postcard once mailed to David Boyle, the secretary of the society and the curator of the Ontario Provincial Museum in Toronto. Addressed from John Ojijatekha Brant-Sero, a Kanien’ke:haka (Mohawk) of the Six Nations of the Grand River, this card advertised an evening’s...

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11. The Grand General Indian Council of Ontario and Indian Status Legislation

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pp. 205-218

Beginning in 1869, Canadian Indian status legislation discriminated against Aboriginal women on the basis of gender. Women who married outside their band, as defined by the Indian Act, were subjected to varying negative consequences, including loss of Indian status if they married non-Aboriginal men or Aboriginal men without Indian status, called...

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12. "This is a pipe and I know hash": Louise Erdrich and the Lines Drawn upon the Waters and the Lands

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pp. 219-231

Lines drawn both on the water and on the land bisect and serve to divide Native American communities. In response, Native Americans in their stories and literatures have resisted these borders throughout their territories. Themes dealing with borders, border crossings, and borderlands are not new to Native American literature. Most borderland stories in...

Notes

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pp. 233-306

Bibliography

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pp. 307-337

List of Contributors

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pp. 339-340

Index

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pp. 341-351