Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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p. vii

Illustrations

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p. ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiii

In February of 1926 an interracial group of five women and one man sailed from New York to Haiti to investigate the continued United States occupation of the island. After traveling for three weeks and talking with a vast array of Haitians, the team, under the auspices of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xv-xvii

I owe gratitude to many people who have made this book possible. But I first want to acknowledge the unending and often unnoticed work for social justice done by everyday people who struggle to provide for their families and communities and to live free from war. ...

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Introduction: Race and the Politics of Peace and Freedom

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pp. 1-33

On August, 29, 1914, more than fifteen hundred white women marched in solemn silence through New York City protesting the war that had just begun in Europe. Although women had participated in antiwar and peace crusades before, most notably the abolition movement and protest of the Spanish-American War, the demonstration ...

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1. African American Women and the Search for Peace and Freedom

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pp. 34-83

In 1933 the NACW published, in their organizational magazine National Notes, an elegant quarter-page photograph of fifty-seven-year-old esteemed clubwoman and writer Alice Dunbar-Nelson with a large caption that read “Advocate of Peace.”1 This photograph and Alice Dunbar-Nelson’s 1929 poem “Cano, I Sing” capture ...

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2. Race and the Social Thought of White Women in the WILPF

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pp. 84-144

The work of Rachel Dubois, Emily Greene Balch, and Anna Melissa Graves demonstrates that many white women of the interwar WILPF also consciously and constantly negotiated race as they constructed responses to war and national strife. Although their thinking differed at times, they held in common the understanding that ...

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3. Philadelphia: Forging a National Model of Interracial Peace Work

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pp. 145-192

In August of 1929 Philadelphia black clubwoman Addie Dickerson attended the sixth WILPF International Congress in Prague. Dickerson joined the US WILPF delegation along with women from twenty-five other countries as they convened for seven days. The deliberation focused on how to make the Kellogg-Briand Pact ...

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4. Cleveland, Washington, DC, and Baltimore: Extending the Network of Interracial Peace Work

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pp. 193-237

Women in Cleveland, Washington, DC, and Baltimore criticized interwar America and argued that there was a link between state-sanctioned racism in the United States and the nation’s support of militarization abroad. Although the exact design of each branch’s efforts to speak out against racism, promote disarmament, ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 238-246

Middle-class reform-minded African American and white women held much in common during the interwar years. Foremost, they shared a deep belief in the vital importance of women’s contributions to the future development of the nation and the world. As women who came of age during the Progressive Era and the Woman’s Era, ...

Notes

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pp. 247-280

Bibliography

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pp. 281-298

Index

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pp. 299-322