Cover

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Title Page

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p. iii

Copyright Page

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p. iv

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Illustrations

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p. vii

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Preface

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p. ix

This book is intended to foster an appreciation for the diversity of native aquatic plants and their role in aquatic ecosystems. We have included information to help readers distinguish major groups of aquatic plants by growth form and habitat relationships. The identification keys, descriptions, and...

Acknowledgments

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p. xi

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Chapter 1. Evolution and Ecology

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pp. 1-20

It’s not always easy to decide what to include in a list of aquatic plants. We treat 194 macrophytes (large plants) here, including 178 flowering plants, 2 horsetails, 2 ferns, 5 quillworts, 3 mosses, 2 liverworts, and 2 Charophyte algae. Phytoplankton and filamentous algae are not included. Macrophytes...

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Chapter 2. Identification Keys for the Aquatic Plants of Pennsylvania

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pp. 21-28

The keys in this book are designed to guide the user through a series of decisions leading to proper identification. At each step of the key, the user must examine a characteristic or characteristics of the plant and decide which of a pair of corresponding statements best fits the specimen in question. Each...

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Chapter 3. Emergent Plants

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pp. 29-142

Arrow-arum is one of several emergent aquatic plants with large, arrow-shaped leaves. The plants consist of a cluster of long-petioled leaves that grow from buried vertical rhizomes. The strongly veined leaf blades are 5–20 cm long. Separate male and female flowers are packed closely on a fleshy stalk...

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Chapter 4. Floating-leaf Plants

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pp. 143-162

Floating-heart is named for its heart-shaped floating leaves that are about 5–8 cm long and look like miniature water-lily leaves. Although some leaves arise directly from the basal rhizome, floating-heart also produces erect, buoyant stems from which a leaf, several flowers, and...

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Chapter 5. Thalloid and/or Tiny Floating Plants

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pp. 163-182

Plants in this group have a reduced structure lacking well-defined stems and leaves, or have tiny floating stems with minute leaves. They are small plants that float at or just below the water surface, or in a few cases grow attached to submerged rocks or other solid surfaces. Included in this group are flowering...

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Chapter 6. Submergent Leafy-stemmed Plants

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pp. 183-240

This group of species grows rooted in the lake bottom or attached to rocks or other solid underwater surfaces. Their stems bear numerous leaves, most of which are beneath the water surface, but some at the stem tip may be floating. The group includes aquatic mosses and flowering plants. Flowering and...

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Chapter 7. Submergent Rosette-forming Plants

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pp. 241-254

Plants in this group are rooted in the lake bed and form a basal rosette of leaves. The group includes flowering plants and the quillworts, which reproduce by spores. In the flowering species an erect, leafless, flowering stem arises from the basal rosette, and flowers are usually borne above the water surface...

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Chapter 8. Submergent Plants with Finely Divided Leaves

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pp. 255-290

The characteristic that defines this group is submergent leaves that are divided into fine, capillary segments. The plants may be either free-floating or rooted. Most are completely submergent, but stem tips or flowering stems of some species extend above the water surface...

Glossary

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pp. 291-294

References and Sources

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pp. 295-298

Appendix: Taxonomic List of Plants Included

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pp. 299-304

Index

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pp. 305-308