Cover

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CONTENTS

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pp. v-vii

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CHAPTER ONE. Rethinking Fashion

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pp. 1-18

"What is fashion?" In November 1993, marketing consultant Estelle Ellis posed this "deceivingly simple question" in a speech at the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) in New York. Ellis had spent more than five decades in the fashion business, launching her career during the late 1940S and early 1950S at Seventeen and Charm magazines...

PART I. Organizing the Fashion Trades

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CHAPTER TWO. Spreading the Word: The Development of the Russian Fashion Press

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pp. 21-41

Imperial Russia (1682-1917) may seem an odd place to begin a book on the fashion industry. Modern-day Russia is not known for either its fashion sense or its business acumen. Except for a few athletes and fashion models, the American image of Russians remains one of heavyset, shabbily dressed peasants, oblivious...

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CHAPTER THREE. Accessorizing, Italian Style: Creating a Market for Milan's Fashion Merchandise

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pp. 42-61

This chapter investigates the early development of the Italian fashion industry by considering the specific case of Milan at the end of the nineteenth century. In those years, Milan was one of Italy's most advanced industrial centers, with a diversified economy and an advanced clothing and textile industry. With almost...

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CHAPTER FOUR. In the Shadow of Paris? French Haute Couture and Belgian Fashion Between the Wars

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pp. 62-81

In the interwar years, the Belgian and French fashion industries entered a symbiotic relationship that extended haute couture's reach in Western Europe. Established in 1929, the Chambre Syndicale de Haute Couture Belge (Belgian Syndicate Chamber of Haute Couture), a trade association dedicated to the fashion industries...

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CHAPTER FIVE. Licensing Practices at Maison Christian Dior

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pp. 82-107

Established in 1946, Maison Christian Dior, or the house of Christian Dior, has reigned supreme in the world of fashion for more than sixty years.1 Today, Maison Dior is still one of the few French couture houses in existence, its name familiar throughout the world. Due to the vicissitudes of the fashion industry, very few couture...

PART II. Inventing Fashions, Promoting Styles

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CHAPTER SIX. The Wiener Werkst├Ątte and the Reform Impulse

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pp. 111-129

The Wiener Werkst├Ątte (1903-1932), intent on reforming every aspect of daily life through excellent craftsmanship and even better design, produced furnishings, silverware, jewelry, metal objects, fashions, pottery, and entire interiors. This Austrian company encouraged its designers to follow their own vision of the...

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CHAPTER SEVEN. American Fashions for American Women: The Rise and Fall of Fashion Nationalism

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pp. 130-149

"It looks for the first time as if a distinct movement toward American-designed fashions for American woman were under way," the Philadelphia-based Ladies' Home Journal declared in 1913. Heralding a "new era of woman's dress," the Journal urged its readers to reject the whims of Paris design and embrace clothing made...

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CHAPTER EIGHT. Coiffing Vanity: Advertising Celluloid Toilet Sets in 1920s America

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pp. 150-166

From 1917 to 1929, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, the nation's largest chemical company, aggressively advertised a new celluloid product: Pyralin Toilet Ware.1 A type of personal grooming accessory kept on the bedroom dresser, vanity sets typically consisted of a comb, brush, and handheld mirror, with dozens...

PART III. Shaping Bodies, Building Brands

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CHAPTER NINE. California Casual: Lifestyle Marketing and Men's Leisurewear, 1930-1960

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pp. 169-186

In 1945, Fortune, the nation's leading business magazine, documented the rapid growth of Los Angeles from a fashion industry outpost in the early 1930s to the nation's third largest clothing center. Fortune highlighted the national reach of California's leisurewear industry: 85 percent of production was shipped over the...

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CHAPTER TEN. Marlboro Men: Outsider Masculinities and Commercial Modeling in Postwar America

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pp. 187-206

On 24 November 2004, the Los Angeles Times published a photograph that became one of the iconic images of the U.S.-Iraq war. Shot by Times photographer Luis Sinco, the picture depicted a battle-weary soldier, Marine Lance Corporal James Blake Miller, following a twelve-hour skirmish near Fallujah. Miller squinted...

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CHAPTER ELEVEN. The Body and the Brand: How Lycra Shaped America

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pp. 207-227

On the morning of October 28,1959, the world's fashion and trade press, along with leading manufacturers of foundation garments, textiles, and clothing, gathered at the Empire State Building on Fifth Avenue in New York City. Dominating the street synonymous with American style, the skyscraper symbolized American...

PART IV. Customer Reactions, Consumer Adaptations

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CHAPTER TWELVE. French Hairstyles and the Elusive Consumer

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pp. 231-249

In November 1910, Emile Long, the doyen of French coiffure, received a lesson in the serendipity of fashion when he paid a visit to several leading Parisian modistes (hatmakers). In his monthly column for Hairdressers' Weekly Journal, Long offered two reasons for this expedition. First, since hairstyles were inevitably subordinate...

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CHAPTER THIRTEEN. Ripping Up the Uniform Approach: Hungarian Women Piece Together a New Communist Fashion

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pp. 250-272

"If I could place a single American book in the hand of every Russian, it would be the Sears, Roebuck catalogue," said Franklin D. Roosevelt.1 Similar statements captured public attention during the political confrontations of the Cold War. The most famous exchange occurred during the "Kitchen Debate" between Richard...

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CHAPTER FOURTEEN. Why the Old-Fashioned Is in Fashion in American Houses

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pp. 273-292

In 1982, California realtors noted a "curious" trend in sales. Faux Victorian houses were selling at a rapid pace, but no one knew why. The New York Times reported the speedy sale of "houses featuring gables, turrets, gazebos, cupolas, leaded glass, parlors and yes, even front porches-houses built in 1981 with 1890 architectural...

NOTES

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pp. 293-348

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

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pp. 349-352

INDEX

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pp. 353-363

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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p. 365

This book owes much to the exciting ideas and intellectual discourse generated at two conferences: "Producing Fashion," at the Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington, Delaware, in October 2005, organized by Hagley's research arm, the Center for the History of Business, Technology, and Society; and "The Sixties," a public...