Cover

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Contents

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xiv

A few years ago, I interviewed for a position at a prestigious university. One member of the appointing committee questioned the signifi cance of studying what he described as a bunch of losers who had made little political impact. I offered what I thought was a robust intellectual defense, challenging the premise of this argument with a protracted explanation of their importance to our understanding of modern race relations...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

In 1936, the United States became a fascist dictatorship. Popular discontent with the failure of the New Deal to alleviate the impact of the Great Depression led the Democrats to dump Franklin D. Roosevelt and to nominate as their presidential candidate midwestern Senator Berzelius...

PART 1 Outside Agitators: Bryant Bowles and John Kasper

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Chapter 1. A Blueprint for Rebellion: Bryant Bowles and the Milford School Crisis

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pp. 15-38

Only four months after the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its landmark decision in Brown v. Board of Education, the desegregation process faced its first serious challenge. That challenge was to end in defeat for the forces of racial reform...

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Chapter 2. A Collapse of Law and Order: John Kasper and Segregationist Resistance in Clinton

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pp. 39-71

In Roger Corman’s 1961 film The Intruder, a mysterious stranger suddenly arrives in the small southern town of Caxton. Claiming to be a “social reformer,” the stranger—played by a young William Shatner—has come to rouse public opposition to the racial integration of the local high school...

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Chapter 3. Into the Abyss: The Nashville School Crisis

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pp. 72-100

John Kasper struggled during the summer of 1957 for an opportunity to restore his tattered personal and political reputation. Skeptical of him from the outset, few segregationists offered him a second chance now that he had been exposed in their minds as a fraud...

PART 2. Never- Ending War: John Crommelin and Edwin Walker

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Chapter 4. Fighting the Hidden Force: John Crommelin and the Defense of Alabama

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pp. 103-133

In October 2003, an audience assembled to celebrate the posthumous induction of a former war hero into the Alabama Military Hall of Honor. The man whose patriotic service the crowd had come to mark was Navy Rear Admiral John G. Crommelin. The United States had marked...

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Chapter 5. Assumption of Command: Military Officers and Massive Resistance

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pp. 134-150

It is tempting to attribute John Crommelin’s delusional belief in an omnipotent political adversary to an individual psychosis. That certainly was the opinion of many of his opponents. As one civil rights activist affirmed...

PART 3. Southern Fuehrer: J. B. Stoner

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Chapter 6. “We Don’t Believe in Tolerance”: Terrorist Responses to Civil Rights Reform

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pp. 153-183

I’ve been fighting Jews and niggers full time more or less since starting in 1942.” So declared J. B. Stoner, perhaps the most violently fanatical racist spawned by massive resistance.1 He was the nexus of a terrorist network that the authorities...

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Chapter 7. Fighting for Freedom by Defending the Enemy: Stoner and the Hate Speech Issue

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pp. 184-209

It lasted only a minute, but elicited a more impassioned public reaction than any other political broadcast aired in the South during the early 1970s. During the first days of August 1972, television audiences across Georgia witnessed the sight of a man in dark suit and bow tie sitting at a desk with a large..

Conclusion

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pp. 210-214

Notes

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pp. 215-258

Bibliography

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pp. 259-282

Index

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pp. 283-301