Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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p. vii

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Acknowledgments

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p. ix

I owe a debt of gratitude to many individuals and institutions for help, support, and input that have contributed to the completion of this book. First, I thank Carla Mulford, under whose supervision I began this project as a dissertation. I could not have asked for a better mentor and friend than Carla, who introduced me ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-23

In 1778, five years after the slave Phillis Wheatley published Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, another writer, also a slave, sat down during a moment’s respite to begin penning a response to the younger and more well-known poet’s work. Now nearly sixty-seven, Jupiter Hammon, who had published ...

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Chapter One. Jupiter Hammon and the Written Beginnings of Black Theology

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pp. 24-48

Jupiter Hammon made important contributions to African American writing that present contemporary readers with many problems of interpretation, particularly in the area of slave resistance. Generally neglected by literary and historical scholarship, Hammon’s poetry and essays nevertheless can shed light on how ...

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Chapter Two. Phillis Wheatley and the Charge toward Progressive Black Theologies

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pp. 49-63

In May 1773, a young woman named Phillis Wheatley boarded a merchant ship named the London Packet that was sailing from Boston to London. Several Boston newspapers announced her journey, noting that she was being escorted by the wealthy owner of the ship and celebrating the young woman as an “extraordinary” ...

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Chapter Three. John Marrant and the Narrative Construction of an Early Black Methodist Evangelical

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pp. 64-82

On a cold winter morning, January 27, 1788, John Marrant departed from Halifax, Nova Scotia, for the final time, boarding a ship headed for Boston. For almost three years, he had preached to a dedicated and growing congregation of loyalist blacks who had immigrated there to escape British-American slavery. ...

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Chapter Four. Prince Hall and the Influence of Revolutionary Enlightenment Philosophy on the Institutionalization of Black Religion

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pp. 83-97

Jupiter Hammon, Phillis Wheatley, and John Marrant were black religious writers who worked contemporaneously to change the way black people viewed themselves in relation to religion. Hammon and Wheatley worked primarily as individuals, producing literary expressions of their piety and intellectual engagement ...

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Chapter Five. Richard Allen and the Further Institutionalization of Black Theologies

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pp. 98-115

Richard Allen was the founder of and the first bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, the first independent black denomination in North America. Scholars generally believe that the African church movement began in 1792 or 1793, when the black members of St. George’s Methodist Church in ...

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Chapter Six. Maria Stewart and the Mission of Black Women in Evangelicalism

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pp. 116-126

As this book demonstrates, beginning with the chapter on Jupiter Hammon, late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century blacks adopted a range of intellectual positions concerning the proper theological schools of thought related to slavery and human rights. And while Phillis Wheatley, Hammon’s contemporary, was in many ways ...

Notes

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pp. 127-142

Bibliography

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pp. 143-152

Index

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pp. 153-157