The Texture of Contact
European and Indian Settler Communities on the Fro
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: University of Nebraska Press
Series: The Iroquoians and Their World
Title Page, Copyright
My gratitude and respect for the many teachers, colleagues, and friends who have shaped my work are ineffable. These terse acknowledgments cannot begin to do them all justice. It is impossible for me to imagine a more perfect mentor than James Axtell. His example of a scholar’s life has been inspirational. ...
Introduction: Under the Tree of Peace
In 1734 a unique map came before the eyes of New York’s royal governor, Col. William Cosby. Mohawk Iroquois leaders had sent a petition to the governor complaining about people encroaching on their lands southwest of Albany near the headwaters of Schoharie Creek, a tributary of the Mohawk River ...
1. The Tree of Peace Planted: Iroquois and French-Canadian Communities in the St. Lawrence Valley
A tree was planted in Montreal in 1701, and a peace grew from its roots that altered the history and character of colonial America and its peoples. From July 25 to August 4, 1701, one of the largest and most important treaties between Indians and Europeans was negotiated. By the waters of the St. Lawrence, Indians and French ...
2. Iroquois Communities in the Eighteenth-Century Mohawk Valley: Schoharie, Tiononderoge, and Canajoharie
“Que! Que! Que!” The sound of Mohawk Indians’ plaintive death cries shattered the silence of a wintry January night in 1745. Six Mohawks had just returned from the nearby Dutch town of Schenectady to deliver terrible news to the villagers in the middle of the night. They had just been among “Our Friends among the White People” ...
3. Dispossessing the Indians: Proprietors, Squatters, and Natives in the Susquehanna Valley
On November 1, 1755, a war party of ninety Delawares, Mingoes, and Shawnees attacked the European settlements in an area of southcentral Pennsylvania called the Great Cove Valley (so named because of the steep mountain ridgelines that hemmed in the bottomlands below). Squatters had been seeking safe harbor ...
4. “The Storm Which Had Been So Long Gathering”: Pennsylvanians and Indians at War
Marie Le Roy and Barbara Leininger and their families were among the thousands of Europeans who immigrated to Pennsylvania in the early eighteenth century. The Leiningers, from the city of Reutlingen in the Rhine-Neckar region, arrived in the colony in 1748; the Swiss Le Roy family emigrated in 1752. ...
5. “Our Neighbourhood with the Settlers”: Iroquois and German Communities in the Seven Years’ War
In late November 1757 nearly two hundred Mississaugas and Canadian Iroquois and around sixty-five French marines and militia embarked on an expedition against New York. Their target was a prosperous settlement called German Flatts in the upper Mohawk Valley. Settled by Oneidas for centuries and the Palatines ...
6. Imperial Crisis in the Ohio Valley: Indian, Colonial American, and British Military Communities
Native Americans knew it as Mehmonawangehelak, referring to the rich soil along its steep banks that occasionally broke off and fell into the river.1 European colonists followed suit with “Monongahela.” Perhaps no other spot of rich Ohio Country soil was more notorious and contested in the 1760s than the Monongahela Valley ...
Epilogue: The Tree of Peace Uprooted
In early December 1773 a somber Sir William Johnson sent urgent letters to the governor of New York, William Tryon, and to Gen. Frederick Haldimand in New York City. He alerted the government to intercept a German farmer named George Klock, “a fellow of notorious bad Character who has long by various Artifices ...