Cover

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Frontmatter

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Title Page

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Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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Series Editors' Preface

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p. ix

Andrew Denson's study, based largely on Cherokee memorials to Congress, presents the Cherokee Nation's conception of United States Indian policy in the nineteenth century. The Cherokees recognized that while their sovereignty predated the United States, it also depended...

Acknowledgments

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p. xi

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Introduction: A Cherokee Literature of Indian Nationhood

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pp. 1-13

The future had looked grim for the Cherokees in early 1870 as Congress began a new session. That, at least, was the recollection of William Penn Adair, Cherokee lawyer, politician, and diplomat. Adair spent much of 1870 in Washington working as a tribal delegate, one of five...

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1. The Long and Intimate Connection

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pp. 15-51

The story of Cherokee removal is well known, the tribe's losing battle to preserve its homeland having become one of the few Native American events now thought indispensable in recounting a broader American history.1 To understand Cherokee political writing over the course of the...

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2. The Civil War and Cherokee Nationhood

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pp. 53-88

Both these quotations refer to a common subject, Cherokee actions in the American Civil War.1 They reflect the contradictory positions in a crucial postwar debate concerning the nature of Cherokee participation in the conflict. At the close of hostilities, the United States government...

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3. The Cherokees' Peace Policy

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pp. 89-120

In February 1877 the Cherokee Advocate published a short essay to mark the end of the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant. By most standards, Grant's departure from Washington that spring was not a triumphant one. The revelation of corruption at the highest levels of...

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4. The Okmulgee Council

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pp. 121-147

For the tribal leaders present, it must have seemed a historic moment, the turning of a corner in American Indian affairs. In December 1870 an intertribal council met at Okmulgee, Creek Nation, and debated the idea of chartering a new government for the Indian Territory. ...

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5. The Indian International Fairs

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pp. 149-171

J. W. Archer, a resident of Indiana, was writing of the Indian International Fair, a multi-tribal gathering held annually at Muskogee, Creek Nation, during much of the late nineteenth century. Archer had attended the fair while traveling through the Indian Territory in the autumn of 1881...

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6. Demagogues, Political Bummers, Scalawags, and Railroad Corporations

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pp. 173-200

"What is the world coming to?" asked the editor of the Cherokee Advocate in early 1878. George W. Johnson had just learned that a group of Protestant ministers, once reliable allies of the Indians, had testified in favor of territorialization before the Board of Indian Commissioners. ...

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7. "This New Phase of the Indian Question"

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pp. 201-242

The historian Nell Irvin Painter writes of the late nineteenth century as an age of "sweeping panaceas." It was a time when the great changes wrought by industrialization inspired in many Americans both deep anxieties and the hope that a utopia could be created if only the right...

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Epilogue

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pp. 243-251

In opposing allotment, the leaders of the Five Tribes predicted that land in severalty and the end of tribal government would impoverish their people, rather than make them into self-sufficient American farmers. Dishonest frontier whites would rush into the former Nations and do...

Notes

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pp. 253-304

Bibliography

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pp. 305-319

Index

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pp. 321-327