Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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Introduction: Motivation, Drug Abuse, and 50 Years of Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry

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pp. ix-xv

In reviewing the 25-year history of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Benjamin and Jones (1979) noted that the Symposium was "the longest-lived topical series in American psychology, with a national and international reputation" (p. ix). On March 28 and 29 of 2002, with a packed...

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Allostatic View of Motivation: Implications for Psychopathology

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pp. 1-18

Motivation as a concept has many definitions. Donald Hebb (1949) argued that motivation is "stimulation that arouses activity of a particular kind" (p. 172), and C. P. Richter (1927) argued that "spontaneous activity arises from certain underlying physiological origins," and such...

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Dual Determinants of Drug Use in Humans: Reward and Impulsivity

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pp. 19-55

Drug use results from a convergence of many factors, including biological, pharmacological, psychological, and cultural influences. The focus of most research in the area of substance abuse has been on the factors that motivate or facilitate drug use, especially those relating to...

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Triggers of Relapse: Nonhuman Primate Models of Reinstated Cocaine Seeking

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pp. 57-84

Drug addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by recurring episodes of persistent drug use, abstinence, and relapse (Jaffe, 1990; Leshner, 1997; Simpson, Joe, Fletcher, Hubbard, & Anglin, 1999). Increased appreciation of the cyclic nature of addiction has led to the emergence...

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The Role of Emotional Systems in Addiction: A Neuroethological Perspective

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pp. 85-126

Modern neuroscience provides a variety of explanatory schemes for understanding drug addiction. These focus to a large extent either on vast molecular complexities of relevant brain systems or their expressions in the form of characteristic and objectively observed behaviors. ...

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Biological Connection between Novelty- and Drug-seeking Motivational Systems

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pp. 127-158

There has been considerable emphasis on research aimed at determining the genetic factors responsible for phenotypic expression of increased drug abuse vulnerability (Crabbe, Phillips, Buck, Cunningham, & Belknap, 1999). Identification of the multiple genetic factors that determine...

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Drive, Incentive, and Reinforcement: The Antecedents and Consequences of Motivation

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pp. 159-195

The aim of scientific explanation is to characterize the important antecedents of observable (or at least objectively confirmable) events. Explanations of behavior in terms of motivational states are appeals to unobservable, internal events for interpretations of behavior that is variable under...

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Pathways to Relapse: Factors Controlling the Reinitiation of Drug Seeking after Abstinence

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pp. 197-234

Although considerable knowledge has accumulated over the past 50 years concerning the systems of the brain that support the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, this knowledge has not been easily translated into effective treatment. The primary problem for treatment of drug...

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Drugs, Behavior, and Environmental Sources of Motivation: Bridging a Gap

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pp. 235-260

The above quotations identify an important gap in knowledge. Individual differences in the behavioral effects of an addicting drug, and in susceptibility to addictive behavior, are major puzzles. Motivating and incentive properties are attributed to "natural" reinforcers, like food and...

Subject Index

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pp. 261-269

Author Index

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pp. 271-286