Cover

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Frontmatter

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Title Page

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Copyright Page

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Table of Contents

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pp. vii-vii

Map

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pp. viii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Though my name alone appears on the cover of this book and I will assume full responsibility for its virtues and shortcomings, I want to extend my sincere thanks to the many people and institutions that made this work possible. The book began several years ago as my doctoral...

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Series Editors' Introduction

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pp. xi-xii

When English colonists first coined the term "Creek Confederacy," they were trying to make political sense of a group of Indians that was very important to them but one that they did not understand very well. Uncomfortable with an Indian political culture that did not incorporate...

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Introduction: The Question of the "Creek Confederacy"

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pp. 1-9

In times of calamity, it has been said, any rumor is believable. Calamitous indeed were the rumors circulating among the Creek Indians in the final year of the Great War for Empire, Britain and France's climactic struggle for supremacy on the American continent. Unsubstantiated reports...

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1. Tall Coweta

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pp. 10-47

Derived from the Muskogee verb vyetv---"to go"---"Coweta" seems an apt label for a wandering people.1 As Creek oral traditions have it, before time began the Cowetas' ancestors emerged from a hole in the ground somewhere to the west. After emerging from this sacred portal...

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2. Enemigos

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pp. 48-80

On April 1, 1688, more than two years after Antonio Matheos reduced four Apalachicola towns to ashes, the newly installed governor of Florida, Don Diego de Quiroga y Losada, exclaimed that "it was a great act of God that they [the Apalachicolas] have not united with the enemies...

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3. A New World Order

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pp. 81-120

The spring of 1715 was a trying time for Brims, the Coweta "emperor" and most influential leader of the Ochese Creek Indians. For several years Brims had looked on in silence as his people gradually became more indebted to English traders,who regularly subjected them to physical...

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4. The Challenge of Triple-Nation Diplomacy

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pp. 121-148

Several weeks after the Creek leaders agreed on a foreign policy to avoid European entanglements and harmonize the factional interests within the Creek nation---an agreement that came to be known as the Coweta Resolution---Brims headed south to explain this new resolution to his...

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5. Oglethorpe's Friends---and Enemies

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pp. 149-185

Through the ages the city of London has seen its share of foreigners come and go, but rarely has it been treated to the spectacle that took place between July and October 1734. That year a small delegation of Creek Indians traversed the "great water" and became the first of their...

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6. The Twin

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pp. 186-228

Ominous news awaited Coweta's leaders as the year 1746 drew to a close. With Chief Tomochichi dead a full seven years, the Yamacraws found themselves on the defensive as the "white people" of Georgia began extracting "a great deal of timber" from the Yamacraw reserve...

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7. The Invention of the Creek Nation

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pp. 229-270

"In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. So be it." These pious words began one of the most important peace treaties in the history of the modern world, the Treaty of Paris, ratified on February 10, 1763, in the name of "His Brittanick Majesty, the...

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Epilogue: The Legacy of the Imperial Era

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pp. 271-278

The ink had scarcely dried on the treaty signed at Augusta when a Chickasaw headman approached British officials to offer a sour note of pessimism: "Nothing done here will be confirmed by the absent [Creek] leaders, in comparison of whom the present chiefs are inconsiderable."1...

Notes

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pp. 279-310

Bibliography

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pp. 311-334

Index

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pp. 335-340