Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Illustrations

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. viii

Maps

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. viii

Tables

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. viii

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xv

In 1988, when I was still an undergraduate, I broke out of the classroom and experienced Belize for the first time through Canadian Crossroads International, a nongovernment organization dedicated to development education in Canada and in the Third World. Miss Sadie Vernon at the Belize Christian Council, who was then the Crossroads country liaison in...

Abbreviations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xvii-xviii

read more

Introduction: "Never a Coward Woman"

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-27

Elfreda Reyes was born in 1900, a colonial subject in the Crown Colony of British Honduras, and died in 1992, a citizen of the sovereign nation of Belize. Six years before her birth, the Creole working class—male mahogany laborers and urban working women descended from African slaves and in some cases also British settlers—demonstrated and rioted in Belize...

read more

1. The Making of a Riot: Women, Wages, and War on the Home Front, 1912-1919

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 29-71

In the relative early morning cool of Saturday 26 July 1919, Annie Flowers left the Belize Town market with a heavy basket of provisions for the kitchen of Mrs. Hofius, the merchant’s wife who employed her as a cook. Annie crossed Haulover Creek bridge and walked up Queen Street past the northside police station to where a group of women stood talking...

read more

2. A Fragile Peace: Colonial Reform, Garveyism, and the Black Cross Nurses, 1920-1930

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 72-114

In late 1919 and early 1920, the colonial administration disbursed close to $1,000 to the Belize Town Board to pay a bounty on each mouse or rat brought in by the public. The Rat Destruction Campaign was hugely successful, with about thirteen thousand animals bagged between November 1919 and February 1920. Despite grumbling from the political elite, the...

read more

3. Hurricane from Below: Popular Protest, the Labourers and Unemployed Association, and the Women's League, 1931-1941

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 115-158

On the afternoon of 10 September 1931, with hundreds of schoolchildren gathered outdoors to march in celebration of the Battle of St. George’s Caye, the worst hurricane in living memory came down on Belize Town like “the wrath of God.” With winds of 130 miles per hour and a fifteen-foot tidal wave, the hurricane cut a stunning swath through the forests...

read more

4. Modernizing Colonialism: Development, Discipline, and Domestications, 1935-1954

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 159-194

The British government launched an ambitious reform project in response to the colonial labor rebellions of the 1930s, one intended to remove the causes of discontent, modernize the colonies, and thus to save the empire into the indefinite future. The West Indian “disturbances” were particularly urgent, forcing British colonial policy makers to place the Caribbean...

read more

5. A New Paterfamilias: The Creation and Control of Popular Nationalism, 1949-1961

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 195-240

On New Year’s Eve 1949 Governor Sir Ronald Garvey—on Colonial Office orders—used his reserve powers to override the Legislative Council and devalue the British Honduran dollar. Within hours a protest rally began on the Battlefield, the park in central Belize City where the LUA meetings of the 1930s had occurred. It was organized by the Open Forum, a small...

read more

6. Negotiating Nationalist Patriarchy: Party Politics, Radical Masculinity, and the Birth of Belizean Feminism, 1961-1982

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 241-276

Nora Parham, the first woman ever executed by the state in Belize, was hanged on 5 June 1963, in a rare display of the hybrid colonial/neocolonial state’s capacity for sovereign violence. The jury, entirely male, as were all juries until 1970, had wrestled with the evidence for four hours before handing down both a guilty verdict and a mercy plea, evidently in an effort...

read more

Conclusion: Gender and History in the Making of Modern Belize

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 277-284

In 1991 female employees at Civic Textiles, a foreign-owned garment factory in Belmopan, formed the Women Workers’ Union (WWU) to fight poor working conditions. When management fired the wwu’s leaders, the allfemale labor force went on strike. A coalition of nongovernment organizations, including BOWAND, supported the WWU and eventually shamed...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 285-343

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 345-367

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 369-385