Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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p. v

List of Tables

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pp. vii-ix

Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

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Introduction: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in America

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pp. xiii-xxiii

The dilemma of providing equal employment opportunities to racial and ethnic minorities and women without promoting a system of new inequalities has become a critical issue in the United States as a result of the implementation of...

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1. A History of Affirmative Action

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pp. 1-19

The first major or, rather, revolutionary act to end discrimination against blacks, which is one of the foremost goals of affirmative action, was the proscription of slavery in 1865 by the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution...

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2. Inequality and Bureaucratic Representation in Government Employment

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pp. 20-34

Discrimination against minorities and women has existed not only in the private sector but in the public sector as well. Focusing on the public sector raises important questions about the prospects for removing public employment...

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3. Blacks in Higher Education Employment

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pp. 35-51

The education of blacks has always been a major and controversial issue throughout American history. During the slavery era, many laws existed to restrict their ability to receive an education. After the Reconstruction Era, numerous laws...

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4. White Women in Higher Education Employment

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pp. 52-67

To become a faculty member and to a lesser extent to be an administrator in higher education, a doctorate is normally required. Other positions in academic institutions often require some type of advanced training or skills, yet...

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5. Hispanics in Higher Education Employment

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pp. 68-81

Unlike blacks, Hispanics (as well as Native Americans) did not found their own colleges; nor did they experience "Reconstruction during which -ever so fleetingly -they [blacks] exercised genuine political power."1 The lack of political power...

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6. Asians and Native Americans in Higher Education Employment

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pp. 82-103

The presence and achievements of Asians in higher education are a major characteristic distinguishing this group from other minorities. Summarizing demographic and enrollment changes for the period 1980-90, the authors of...

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7. Minority and Female Doctorates

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pp. 104-121

As the student body in colleges and universities became diverse and white male students became a minority, pressures for hiring female and minority faculty and administrators increased. It was argued that white male administrators did...

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8. The Political and Socioeconomic Determinants of Higher Education Employment

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pp. 122-133

Why do the patterns that we have found in higher education employment in the American states exist? We next attempt to discover if various macrolevel political and socioeconomic factors have had an influence on the employment of minorities and women...

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9. Summary and Conclusions

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pp. 134-145

In this book, we have examined the problem of discrimination and its impact on higher education employment. Early racial attitudes by such notables as Thomas Jefferson demonstrate that even those who might have favored the...

Tables

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pp. 147-179

Appendixes

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pp. 181-222

Notes

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pp. 223-245

Index

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pp. 247-250