Contents

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p. xi

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Preface to the Third Edition

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pp. xiii-xiv

"We will continue to enforce economic sanctions and ban travel to Cuba until Cuba's government shows real reform." With this pronouncement in Miami on May 20, 2002, George W. Bush affirmed...

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Preface

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pp. xv-xix

Relations between Cuba and the United States seemed destined from the beginning to be close and complicated. Before both were separate and sovereign nations, even as they continued as European colonies, circumstances had created needs in each that only the...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xxi-xxii

The completion of this book leaves me very much in the debt of others, beginning with the staffs at the Archivo Nacional de Cuba and the Biblioteca Nacional "Jose Marti" in Havana and the National Archives and Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. I am...

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1. The Origins of Relations

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pp. 1-28

Relations between Cuba and the United States began modestly enough through irregular commercial contacts, mostly illicit, between European colonies in the New World, trading to obtain otherwise scarce commodities or to elude exorbitant colonial taxes—and...

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2. A Convergence of Interests

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pp. 29-54

The expansion of the Cuban economy in the nineteenth century created new problems and exacerbated old ones. The rise of sugar production transformed Cuban society and announced the emergence of new social classes and new class tensions. A Creole...

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3. At the Crossroads

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pp. 55-81

The Ten Years' War marked a transitional point for Cuba in the nineteenth century. After 1878, Spain remedied some of the structural sources of Cuban discontent, with varying degrees of success. Slavery was abolished within a decade. Trade policies were...

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4. Intervention and Occupation

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pp. 82-112

The new separatist war began in February 1895, in much the same fashion as others before it, with localized skirmishes, mostly in remote mountain folds of eastern Cuba, initially too distant to cause planters and politicians in western Cuba much concern. Rebellion in...

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5. Context and Content of the Republic

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pp. 113-148

The military occupation ended on May 20, 1902, with an appropriate mix of ceremony and celebration and with much made about the successful transition from colony to republic. But the stunted Cuban republic fashioned by the U.S. proconsuls had little relevance...

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6. The Purpose of Power

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pp. 149-169

Relations between Cuba and the United States after 1902 tended to reflect accurately the anomalous constraints under which the republic was created. The Permanent Treaty guaranteed the United States an institutional presence in Cuban internal affairs. Increasingly...

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7. Stirrings of Nationality

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pp. 170-201

By the 1920s, the contradictions of U.S. hegemony in Cuba had overtaken the republic. For more than two decades the United States had endeavored to create conditions in Cuba in which North American interests—political, economic, strategic—could flourish...

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8. Twilight Years

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pp. 202-237

The crisis of the 1930s gradually ended, and many of the conditions that had been at its source were remedied or otherwise adjusted. Relations between Cuba and the United States changed when in 1934 the Platt Amendment was abrogated. The United States...

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9. Revolution and Response

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pp. 238-281

The end of the Batista regime came amid a revolutionary general strike on January 1, 1959, summoning hundreds of thousands of Cubans to dramatic action against the old order, demanding nothing less than unconditional surrender to the new. The success of...

Notes

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pp. 283-309

Bibliographical Essay

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pp. 311-326

Index

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pp. 327-336