COVER

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

CONTENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. vii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

ABBREVIATIONS

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xi-xii

read more

ONE: Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-13

For the past four years, I have followed 2,4-d (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4,5-t (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) through history. Plant physiologists classify these synthetic chemical compounds as selective auxins of the phenoxyacetic herbicide family. They were the first plant killers developed by scientists...

read more

TWO: An Etymology of Ecocide

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 14-32

From the Peloponnesian War to the present-day Palestinian-Israeli conflict, combatants have accused the other side of committing atrocities. It is a unique form of propaganda — a condemnation that the enemy has crossed a normative boundary whose authority supersedes the objectives of both combatants...

read more

THREE: Agent Orange before Vietnam

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 33-47

Agent Orange has a split lineage. The history of its component chemicals, 2,4-d and 2,4,5-t, begins with one of Charles Darwin’s lesser-known biological theories. The history of the military weapon Agent Orange begins on the eve of World War II, when the demands of total war sparked one scientist’s insight...

read more

FOUR: Gadgets and Guerrillas

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 48-66

The decision to launch military herbicide operations in Vietnam in November 1961 was a key component of President John F. Kennedy’s grand strategy to contain the spread of communism and roll back the global influence of the Soviet Union. Three years before Lyndon B. Johnson “chose war”...

read more

FIVE: Herbicidal Warfare

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 67-88

In early December 1961, immediately after President John F. Kennedy authorized herbicide operations, c-123 transport aircraft retrofitted with fixed-wing spray mechanisms took off from several U.S. Air Force bases. Although the merits of the term “chemical warfare” became a contentious issue in the latter part...

read more

SIX: Science, Ethics, and Dissent

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 89-111

The scientific controversy over Operation Ranch Hand picked up where the controversy over atomic radiation had left off. A 1964 article in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists launched the decade-long scientific movement to terminate herbicidal warfare.1 That same year, Lyndon B. Johnson...

read more

SEVEN: Surveying a Catastrophe

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 112-137

The American war in Vietnam was not the first to create widespread ecological damage in that country. The Japanese occupation during World War II devastated Vietnamese forests. In keeping with Japan’s main goal to extract the maximum amount of natural resources from Indochina, Imperial...

read more

EIGHT: Against Protocol

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 138-158

Fortuitous timing allowed the protesting scientists to help end herbicidal warfare for all time. The HAC members and their colleagues found an unwitting ally in President Richard M. Nixon. By attempting to ratify the Geneva Protocol of 1925, the president aimed to showcase American global leadership...

read more

NINE: Conclusion: Ecocide and International Security

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 159-168

By the end of the 1960s, the cold war “consensus” among the Washington political establishment had collapsed.1 In the words of Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Republican from Oregon, as the decade drew to a close, “the disposition of Congress began to shift, almost imperceptibly. National economic...

NOTES

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 169-204

BIBLIOGRAPHY

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 205-232

INDEX

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 233-245