Cover

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Contents

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Preface

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pp. vii-x

John Bachman was a Lutheran clergyman who by 1854 was also the leading authority on North American mammals. He was the author or coauthor of three major books and more than sixty shorter publications on science, religion, and other subjects. His writings are incisive, erudite, thorough, honest, and lucid, and they...

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Introduction: John Bachman's Works and Life

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pp. 1-21

John Bachman prepared the text for John James Audubon and his Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845-54). In his Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race Examined on the Principles of Science (1850), he established that all races were a single species equivalent...

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Funeral Discourse of the Rev. John G. Schwartz

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pp. 22-40

John G. Schwartz was born in Charleston in 1807, and when his father died in 1819, Bachman assumed responsibility for his education. Schwartz graduated from South- Carolina College in 1826 and briefly taught classics at the College of Charleston, but resigned to become a minister...

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Address Delivered before the Horticultural Society of Charleston

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pp. 41-69

The Latin word hortus means garden, and horticulture as distinct from agriculture is generally done by hand and involves science or art. The aspects of the subject that Bachman emphasized most were the development and introduction of more useful varieties of plants...

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Experiments Made on the Habits of the Vultures

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pp. 70-81

Audubon experimented to see if buzzards located their food by sight or smell, and in 1826 he published an article that noted, for example, that buzzards were attracted to a stuffed deer on the basis of sight alone. When controversy followed, Audubon asked Bachman to devise additional experiments...

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Migration of North American Birds

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pp. 82-104

Bachman produced an overview of migration that was uniquely comprehensive for its time and that included innumerable major insights. In "Natural Selection," the manuscript that was summarized for the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin praised Bachman's article as "excellent" (Darwin 1975: 491)...

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Species of Squirrel Inhabiting North America

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pp. 105-133

On August 14, 1838, Bachman made a presentation to the Zoological Society of London in which he described fourteen species of North American squirrels, six of which were described scientifically for the first time. Charles Darwin was present, and after the meeting, he asked Bachman numerous...

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Changes of Colour in Birds and Quadrupeds

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pp. 134-176

For its methodology, this is one of Bachman's most significant contributions to natural history. His topic is the "mutations to which some birds and quadrupeds are subject, from the young to the adult state, and at different periods of the year."...

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Benefits of an Agricultural Survey

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pp. 177-216

In 1843 the Literary and Philosophical Society asked Bachman to consider the need for an agricultural survey of South Carolina, and as usual, he considered the problem comprehensively. This essay is another major example of his approach to the solution of complex problems...

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American Beaver: A Chapter from Audubon and Bachman's Quadrupeds

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pp. 217-237

The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America was published in six volumes: a total of 150 illustrations were published in three folio volumes in 1845, 1846, and 1848, and the text was published in three octavo volumes in 1846, 1851, and 1854. For the illustrations by the Audubons...

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Generation of the Opossum

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pp. 238-250

The Virginia Opossum is the only marsupial in North America, and at the time Bachman did research on it, most aspects of its reproduction were uncertain. As for his studies of migration and of changing colors, he approached this problem comprehensively and provided new insights...

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Unity of the Human Race

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pp. 251-262

In The Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race Examined on the Principles of Science, Bachman demonstrated that all races are a single species by showing how much the varieties of human beings have in common with one another and with other varieties of domesticated...

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Defense of Luther and the Reformation

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pp. 263-278

Bachman wrote, "I enter on the defense of Luther and the Reformation not so much on account of my being a Lutheran clergyman professing to hold the fundamental doctrines he taught...

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Address on Education

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pp. 279-298

As president of the board of trustees, Bachman gave An Address on Education, Delivered on the Day of the Laying of the Corner- stone of Newberry College, July 15, 1857. He began by indicating the increasing need for higher education as societies progressed, and he stated his intention...

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Vindication

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pp. 299-316

In 1865 a Philadelphia clergyman named E. W. Hutter accused Bachman of refusing to aid Union soldiers who had been hospitalized in the Confederate city of Charleston. He asserted that "no man in Charleston gloated so openly over the barbarities inflicted on our...

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Selected Letters, 1831-1871

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pp. 317-358

Approximately two hundred of Bachman's letters are known to have survived largely in the correspondence of recipients and principally in his correspondence with members of the Audubon family. The following sixteen letters are addressed to seven correspondents...

Bibliography

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pp. 359-374

Index

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pp. 375-381