title page

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pp. iii-iii

copyright

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pp. iv-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-vii

I gratefully acknowledge the support for the conference and this volume provided by the Russell Sage Foundation, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and the Foundation for Child Development. I would like to thank three discussants for their penetrating commentary on the papers presented at the conference: Alexander Aleinikoff, Olivia Golden, and Robert Suro; their comments can...

About the Authors

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pp. ix-x

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Chapter 1

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pp. 1-36

ON AUGUST 22, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed the landmark Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) that with much fanfare eliminated welfare as an entitlement, imposed time limits on public assistance, mandated that welfare beneficiaries work, and substantially increased...

Part I. Political and Legal Context

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Chapter 2 Limiting Welfare Benefits for Noncitizens: Emergence of Compromises

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pp. 39-68

THE 1996 WELFARE reform law—the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act—changed almost every aspect of noncitizen eligibility for welfare benefits, especially by limiting their access to benefits. My goal in this chapter is to review the reform policies and their origins...

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Chapter 3

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pp. 69-90

THE ALIENAGE RESTRICTIONS of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) raised one principal constitutional question: does a state’s choice to deny lawful permanent residents (LPRs) the same welfare benefits it provides to citizens, where...

Part II Trends in Benefit Use and Reform’s Impacts

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Chapter 4

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pp. 93-122

THE RECEPTION that newcomers face in host societies shapes the nature and degree of immigrant incorporation (Bloemraad 2006; Portes and Rumbaut 2001). Recent research, for example, has found that more favorable and welcoming social contexts increase the probability of naturalization (Van Hook, Brown, and Bean 2006). Such findings imply that....

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Chapter 5 Trends in Immigrants’ Use of Public Assistance after Welfare Reform

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pp. 123-152

THE PERSONAL Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) significantly changed the eligibility of legal immigrants for means-tested federal public assistance (Public Law 104-193). Twelve years after the law was enacted, ample evidence shows that the use of these assistance programs has declined markedly among...

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Chapter 6Changes in Immigrants’ Use of Medicaid and Food Stamps: The Role of Eligibility and Other Factors

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pp. 153-192

CONGRESS RESTRICTED the eligibility of legal immigrants for meanstested benefits by passing two laws in 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA). These changes were designed to limit the use of means-tested federal benefits by...

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Chapter 7 Welfare-Leaving and Child Health and Behavior in Immigrant and Native Families

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pp. 193-228

CHILDREN OF immigrants are the fastest-growing segment of the child population. Although immigrants make up less than 13 percent of the total population, their children make up 22 percent of the total child population and 30 percent of the lowincome child population in...

Index

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pp. 229-243