Falcon and the Eagle
Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908-1914
Publication Year: 1998
Published by: Purdue University Press
Between 1908 and 1914, Montenegro, the tiny Serb land nestled in the southwestern corner of present-day Yugoslavia, was a mouse that roared repeatedly in European affairs. A poor country whose capital was smaller than many backwater European towns, it was constantly involved in diplomatic crises, many of its own making. ...
I should like to express my gratitude to the faculty and staffs of the various institutions that have permitted me to use their resources, both human and material, in the preparation of this manuscript. In particular, I thank the interlibrary loan divisions of Alderman Library, University of Virginia; Newman Library, ...
A Note on Names
As the places mentioned in this study frequently have different spellings (indeed, different names) in the various Western and Balkan languages, whenever possible I have used the accepted English form of a foreign toponymy: thus, Vienna instead of Wi en; Scutari in lieu of Shkoder or Skodra; Belgrade instead of Beograd. ...
CHAPTER ONE - The Setting
In 1908, a year of great political upheaval in the Balkan peninsula, Montenegro was not the same small island she had been in centuries past, yet H. C. Darby's pithy paragraph still tells us much about the land of the Black Mountain in the early twentieth century. To begin with, Montenegro was small. ...
CHAPTER TWO - The Annexation Crisis, I: 1908
The unenviable task of informing Prince Nicholas of Vienna's intentions toward Bosnia and Hercegovina fell to the AustroHungarian minister in Cetinje, Baron Franz Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld. Unknown to him at the time, the prince had already learned of the impending annexation through Russian sources, and he expected the announcement. 1 ...
CHAPTER THREE - The Annexation Crisis, II: 1909
While Field Marshal Conrad honed his saber, Aehrenthal continued to seek a peaceful solution to the problem he had created for himself and Europe. As he confided to Josef Redlich, the situation was so bad that he had decided to come to terms with the Ottoman Empire.1 By New Year's Day 1909, negotiations with the Porte were well under way. ...
CHAPTER FOUR - From Kolruin to Jubilee: 1909-1910
Montenegro's diplomatic situation changed little between the spring and autumn of 1909. The tiny Balkan land still chafed at the treatment accorded it during the annexation crisis by Austria-Hungary and the other Great Powers, including its traditional Russian benefactor. ...
CHAPTER FIVE - The Malissori Uprisings: 1910-1911
Mary Edith Durham, the intrepid English writer and champion of Albanian causes, concluded that little good would come of Nicholas's new royal standing. "One point both Montenegrins and Albanians agreed upon," she related. "'A king must have a kingdom. The Powers would not otherwise have allowed him to be king. Soon there will be war.' "1
CHAPTER SIX - The Road to War: 1911-1912
No sooner had the Albanian question been set aside than a new crisis erupted in North Africa, one with even more serious implications for peace in the Balkans. After France had tightened her hold on Morocco in 1911, the Italian government moved to realize its imperial ambitions in Tripoli. ...
CHAPTER SEVEN - The Outbreak of the First Balkan War: 1912-1913
The shelling of Planinica, which Nicholas staged with such ceremony, forced a hasty Turkish retreat, and Montenegrins had their first taste of victory only hours after they had begun their attack. On 12 October, General Janko Vukotic, commander of the Eastern Army, took Bijelo Polje; four days later Berane fell. ...
CHAPTER EIGHT - The Scutari Crisis: 1913
Nicholas's renewed attack on Scutari prompted the European Powers to initiate a naval demonstration along the Montenegrin coast. The crisis was front-page news throughout April and early May, as all of Europe wondered whether the international naval action would succeed in bringing the recalcitrant Balkan kingdom to its knees and in the process eliminate the growing possibility of a general European war. ...
CHAPTER NINE - From Scutari to Sarajevo: 1913-1914
In the wake of the Scutari crisis, Montenegro marked time. While Nicholas contemplated how to finance the costly enterprises of the past few months and to consolidate his territorial gains, his erstwhile Balkan allies-Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria-bickered over the spoils of the First Balkan War. ...
CHAPTER TEN - Into Armageddon--The Outbreak of War: 1914
On 28 June 1914, in the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo, a Serb nationalist shot and killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the thrones of Austria and Hungary, and his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg. It was a Sunday, St. Vitus's Day (Vidov dan), the 525th anniversary of Serbia's tragic defeat on the plain of Kosovo. ...
In the decade before World War I, Montenegro exercised political influence far out of proportion to her small size and meager resources. This stemmed, in part, from the ambitions of her sovereign; from her location in the volatile Balkans, a region of conflicting nationalist aspirations and Great-Power rivalries; and from her threatening position at Austria's back door. Cetinje, her unimposing mountain capital, was the site of constant ...
Page Count: 280
Publication Year: 1998
OCLC Number: 645114759
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