Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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pp. 1-7

List of Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

In 1977 Harvey Milk was elected to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Although he was not the first lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgenderperson elected to a government office in the country, he was the first LGBT personelected in San Francisco. (Throughout this book I use the term ‘‘LGBT’’ to beinclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. However, the vastmajority of LGBT candidates and elected officials are gay or lesbian, and my conclu-...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiii

As with most book projects, this one is a long time coming. I began to collect some of the data analyzed here more than fifteen years ago in the early years of my graduate training. Nevertheless, this project would not have been possible without the support and assistance of many people and organizations. First and foremost, this project was funded in large part by a 2003 Wayne F. Placek Award from the American Psychological Foundation. A number of students assisted...

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1 Political Representation and a Brief History of the American LGBT Movement

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pp. 1-32

Attempts by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to gain political representation have evolved out of the LGBT movement’s goal of achieving equality in American society and politics. This evolution is similar to that followed by other historically marginalized groups in American politics, such ...

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2 See How They Run: Voter Preferences and Candidates’ Experiences with the Role of Sexual Orientation in State Elections

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pp. 33-65

Like other groups, the LGBT community can try to achieve political representation by electing openly LGBT candidates to public office, ensuring that LGBT people are appointed to official positions, or by influencing the behavior of sympathetic heterosexual and closeted homosexual officials. However, ...

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3 Assessing the Role of Sexual Orientation in Elections: LGBT State Legislative Candidates, 1992–2006

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pp. 66-83

On the basis of the discussion and analysis presented in chapter 2, we can now move to a systematic analysis of how a candidate’s sexual orientation influences state legislative election outcomes. Although much of the (especially early) research on female and minority candidates would suggest that LGBT candidates are likely to receive less support than their heterosexual counter-parts, the conclusions in chapter 2 indicate that if LGBT candidates are strategic,...

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4 In the Legislature: Case Studies on Political Representation and LGBT State Legislators

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pp. 84-117

As the quotations above make clear, LGBT legislators believe that increased descriptive representation has a real and enduring impact on the policy process in the policymaking process. And at least some LGBT legislators believe that they play a special role in advocating for the interests of the LGBT...

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5 Translating Descriptive Representation into Substantive Representation

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pp. 118-128

In this chapter I build on the analysis presented in chapter 4 by systematically exploring whether the presence of LGBT state legislators produces substantive representation in state legislatures. The evidence from chapter 4 suggests that even though LGBT legislators hold a small percentage of state legislative seats,...

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6 Descriptive Representation and Backlash

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pp. 129-147

The results analyzed in chapters 4 and 5 clearly indicate that increased LGBT descriptive representation is associated with increased substantive representation. This conclusion is consistent with a considerable amount of research on ethnic and racial minorities as well as women in elected...

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7 Conclusion: Out for Good

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pp. 148-157

As the American LGBT movement has expanded and matured, its policy successes have grown as well. However, as other political movements and groups have recognized, having friends at the table may not be quite the same thing as having one of your own at the table. But even with this intuitive logic, ...

Appendixes

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pp. 159-161

References

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pp. 163-180

Index

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pp. 181-188