Punished

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-xvi

"An old, rusty refrigerator had been knocked over on the side of Pelon’s garage. It was white and dented on the edges and looked like it had not been used in a decade. Its metal cooling rods faced the open sky. A twenty-four case of Corona beer filled with empty bottles sat on top..."

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xviii

"It takes a village to write a book. I am grateful to everyone that took part in the collective sowing to see this project flourish. The following colleagues and mentors read or discussed parts of my manuscript and provided me with crucial feedback: Elijah Anderson, Randol..."

Part I

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1

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pp. 3-23

"Fifteen-year-old Slick, a Latino kid born and raised in Oakland, showed me the 'hotspots': street intersections and sidewalks where life-altering experiences linger, shaping young people’s perspectives of the area. As he walked me through the neighborhood, he pointed to the corner of International Boulevard and 22nd Avenue, where a few months before..."

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2

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pp. 24-42

"On any given sunny afternoon, one can find a concentration of hundreds of young people hanging out along an eighty-four-block span of International Boulevard, the main thoroughfare in Oakland, that streams through the four-mile heart of the poor and working-class districts of the..."

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3

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pp. 43-73

"Tyrell, a Black youth, and Jose, a Latino youth, both sixteen years old, sat on a splintered wood bench at the bus stop on the corner of 35th and International, in front of Hernandez Meat Market. Right above them, a pig and the head of a cow, painted on the meat-market wall, stared..."

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4

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pp. 74-94

"I drove to Spider’s house late one afternoon after a long day of discussing inequality with urban sociologists at the University of California, Berkeley. Some claimed to have found answers to the problematic questions they asked: 'Why do African Americans commit disproportionate..."

Part II

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5

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pp. 97-123

"Ronny was called in for a job interview at Carrows, a chain restaurant that served $9.99 sirloin steak and shrimp. He called me up, asking for help.1 I lent him a crisp white dress shirt, which I had purchased at a discount store when I worked as a server at a steak house during my undergraduate years."

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6

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pp. 124-141

"One late afternoon, Spider, Big Rob, and Bullet passed the time behind a warehouse that bordered the neighborhood park. Bullet made fun of Spider’s haircut. Spider had shaved off all his hair except for the back end of his head, where he left a long ponytail. The boys referred to this..."

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7

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pp. 142-156

"J.T., an African American sixteen-year-old, was a good student: 'I get like A’s and B’s and sometimes C’s, but I try to stay on top,' he explained. I saw two of his report cards to verify this. His mother worked for the City of Oakland as a clerk. He described what she does:..."

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Conclusion

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pp. 157-168

"On a hot summer day in the Bay Area in 2006, I found myself at San Quentin State Penitentiary, infamous for hosting California’s only execution chamber. I stood between two rusty iron gates, anxious and claustrophobic, as the bars appeared to inch closer toward me."

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Appendix

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pp. 169-174

"Although I would like to pretend that this study was objective, from an outsider’s perspective that could bring to light the issues that young people face in a fair and balanced way, I acknowledge that this study is affected by my own experience. Nevertheless, as a social scientist, I..."

Notes

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pp. 175-192

References

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pp. 193-204

Index

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pp. 205-217

About the Author

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p. 218